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English-to-Quenya Dictionary

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Quettaparma Quenyanna

Version 1.3.

<A> <B> <C> <D> <E> <F> <G> <H> <I> <J> <K> <L> <M>
<N> <O> <P> <Q> <R> <S> <T> <U> <V> <W> <Y> <Z>


SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED: + = poetic or archaic word (e.g. +él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, +swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien's lifetime (by some called "Real Time", as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11 - references are selective), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in LotR). When s in a word represents earlier þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda (þ), sanya- (þ); see ABIDE, ABIDING below).

<A>

A, AN (indefinite article) - no Quenya equivalent. Elen "star" may thus also be translated "a star" (LotR:94). The absence of the definite article i "the" usually indicates that the noun is indefinite (though there are exceptions - see THE).
ABANDON hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, forsake) -WJ:365
ABHOR feuya-; THE ABHORRED Sauron (þ) -PHEW, Silm:418
ABIDE mar- (be settled of fixed) (fut. #maruva is attested: maruvan "I will abide"); ABIDE BY himya- (cleave to, stick to); ABIDING sanda (þ) (firm, true); LAW-ABIDING sanya (þ) (regular, normal) -UT:317/LotR:1003, KHIM, STAN
ABUNDANCE úvë; ABUNDANT úvëa (in a very great number), alya (rich, blessed, prosperous) -UB, GALA
ABYSS undumë -MC:222 cf. 215
ACCOUNT (noun) quentalë (history), lúmequenta (chronological account, history) -KWET, LU
ACROSS arta (athwart) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress") -LT2:335
ACTOR tyaro (agent, doer) -KYAR
ACTUAL anwa (real, true) -ANA
ACUTE tereva (fine, piercing); ACUTE, ACUTENESS laicë (keen, sharp, *piercing) (Laicë prob. obsoletes laica in LT2:337) -TER, LAIK
ADHERING himba (sticking) -KHIM
ADMIRAL ciryatur (only attested as the personal name Ciryatur of an admiral, but the word means *"ship-ruler") -UT:239
ADULT (adj) vëa (manly, vigorous); ADULT MAN vëaner; ADULT MALE nér (pl neri) (man) -WEG, DER
ADÛNAKHOR Herunúmen -UT:222, Silm:322
AEGNOR Aicanáro (so in Silm:435 and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár) (Sharp Flame, Fell Fire)
AFTER #apa (only attested in compounds like Apanónar, see below), #ep- (used in compounds when the second part of the compound begins with a vowel, only attested in epessë "after-name" - see NICKNAME.) THE AFTER-BORN Apanónar (sg #Apanóna) (i.e., an Elvish name of Men, according to WJ:387 "a word of lore, not used in daily speech") -Silm:122/WJ:387, UT:266
AGAIN ata; AGAIN (prefix) en-, (prefix) at-, ata- (back-, re-) (AT[AT])
AGE randa (cycle) -RAD
AGENT tyaro (actor, doer) -KAR
AGILE tyelca (swift) -KYELEK
AGO -YA< DD> AGONY qualmë (death), unqualë (death) -KWAL
AH (interj.) ai (alas) Ai! laurië lantar lassi Ah! golden fall the leaves (Nam)
AIR vista (= air as substance); lindë (tune, song, singing); vilya older [MET] wilya (sky); vilma (lower air) (perhaps changed to vista, but vilma was not struck out in Etym); PUFF OF AIR hwesta (breeze, breath); UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies), AIRY vilin (breezy) -WIS, LIN, WIL/LT1:273, SWES/LotR:1157, MC:223, LT1:273
ALAS (interj.) ai (ah) (Etym also gives a word nai, but this clashes with nai "be it that" in Namárië.) -Nam/RGEO:66, NAY
ALIVE cuina; BEING ALIVE (noun not adj) cuilë (life) (LT1:257 gives coina, coirëa.) -KUY
ALL ilya (the whole) (Note: ilya becomes ilyë before a plural noun: ilyë tier "all paths"); ALLNESS, THE ALL ilúvë (the whole), ALL THAT IS WANTED fárë (plenitude, sufficiency) -IL, Nam cf. RGEO:67, Silm:433/WJ:402, PHAR
ALLOW lav- (yield, grant); NOT ALLOW TO CONTINUE nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short) -DAB, WJ:413
ALONE er (one, alone, only, but, still), eressë (singly, only, also as noun: solitude) -ERE, LT1:269
ALPHABET tengwanda -TEK
ALTOGETHER aqua (fully, completely, wholly) -WJ:392
*AMANIAN (only translated "of Aman" by Tolkien) amanya. Cf. also Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman" (the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; contrast the Avamanyar, another name of the Avari.) -WJ:411, 373, 370, MR:163
AMLOTH *Ambalotsë (Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of Amloth. See "UPRISING-FLOWER".) -WJ:318
AMRAS Telufinwë (meaning "Last Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Telvo *"Last One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarussa, but this name was not used in narrative.) -PM:353
AMROD Pityafinwë (meaning "Little Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Pityo *"Little One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarto, or Umbarto, but these names were not used in narrative.) -PM:353
AN see A
ANCIENT yára (belonging to or descending from former times) -YA
AND ar (possibly a before f [and v?]: eldain a fírimoin "for elves and men" [FS], cf. a valmarion "and of those of Valmar" [from "Antatye Voronwi" by C. Gilson, Vinyar Tengwar #31 p. 10]) (In Sauron Defeated p. ii, o is translated "and", but LotR, Silm and Etym all agree that the Quenya word for "and" is ar.) AND YET a-nanta/ananta (but yet) -AR/Nam/FS, NDAN
ANGBAND Angamando (Iron-gaol) (so in MR:350 and Silm:428; Etym has Angamanda) -MR:350, Silm:428, MBAD
ANGELIC POWER Vala (pl. Valar or Vali, gen. pl. Valion is attested in Fíriel's Song); ANGELIC SPIRIT Ainu, f. Aini (holy one, god) -LotR:1157/BAL/FS, AYAN, LT1:248
ANGELN (island in the Danish peninsula) Eriollo -LT1:252
ANGROD Angaráto -Silm:428
ANIMAL #kelva (only pl. kelvar is attested, translated "animals, living things that move" in Silm appendix and WJ:341); laman (pl. lamni or lamani) ("usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds"); MALE ANIMAL hanu (male) -Silm:52/53,/405:3AN, WJ:416
ANYBODY - if anybody: aiquen (whoever) -WJ:372
APRIL Víressë -LotR:1144/1146
AR-ADÛNAKHOR Tar-Herun&u; acute;men -UT:222, Silm:322
AR-BELZAGAR Tar-Calmacil -UT:222
AR-GIMILZÔR Tar-Telemnar -UT:223
AR-INZILADÛN Tar-Palantir -UT:223, Silm:324
AR-PHARAZÔN Tar-Calion -UT:224, Silm:324
AR-SAKALTHÔR Tar-Falassion -UT:223
AR-ZIMRAPHEL Tar-Míriel -UT:224, Silm:324
AR-ZIMRATHÔN Tar-Hostamir -UT:222
ARCTURUS (a star) Morwinyon (said to mean "the glint at dusk" or "glint in the dark") -LT1:260
ARE see BE
ARGON Aracáno -PM:345
ARM ranco (pl ranqui) (LT2:335 gives [there spelt ], but this word is certainly obsolete: In Etym, is glossed "lion".) -RAK
ARMY hossë (band, troop) -LT2:340
ARNOR Arnanor, Arnanórë ("royal land") -Letters:428
ARROW pilin (pl pilindi) -PÍLIM
ART Carmë (making, production) -UT:396
ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) -PM:365
AS (prep) ve (like) -Nam/RGEO:66, 67
ASCENT rosta, ASCENSION orosta -LT1:267, 256
ASGARD Valinor, Valinórë (Tolkien actually uses this gloss of Valinor, as Asgard is the City of the Gods in Norse mythology) -LT1:272
ASIDE - stand aside! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you stay aside!" (be gone!) LEAVING ASIDE hequa (not counting, excluding, except) -WJ:364, 365
*ASK #maquet- (only pa.t. maquentë is attested. The word is not translated, but undoubtedly means "asked": 'Mana i-coimas in-Eldaron?' maquentë Elendil [PM:403]. The question itself is translated "What is the coimas of the Eldar?", so the rest must be "Elendil asked". Furthermore, maquentë is transparently quentë "said" with the interrogative element ma [PM:357] prefixed.)
ASLEEP lorna -LOS
ASSEMBLE hosta- (gather, collect) -MC:223
ASSOCIATE otorno (sworn brother) osellë (þ) (sworn sister) -TOR, THEL
ASTRONOMER meneldil -Letters:386
ATHWART arta (across) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress"); GO ATHWART tara- (cross) -LT2:335, 347
AUGER teret (gimlet) -LT1:255
AUGUST Urimë (so in LotR; UT has Úrimë) -LotR:1144, UT:302/470
AUTHORITY Máhan (pl Máhani is given, but seems perfectly regular). Tolkien once stated that Valar should strictly be translated "the Authorities" (MR:350), but Vala obviously cannot be used to translate "authority" in general; it was used only of the Valar themselves (WJ:404). Cf. also adj. valya "having (divine) authority or power". Máhani was adopted from Valarin and originally probably referred to the Valar themselves. We are not told whether Máhan could or should be applied to a non-divine authority (at least it should not be capitalized if so used). Note: Máhan means *"Supreme One" rather than "authority" as an abstract. -MR:350, BAL, WJ:399/402
AUTUMN yávië (harvest - in the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), lasselanta ("leaf-fall", used of the beginning of winter or as a synonym of quellë; see FADING. Also spelt lasse-lanta with a hyphen), narquelion ("fire-fading" - this word from Fíriel's Song and Etym seems to correspond to narquelië in LotR, but the latter is the name of the month corresponding to our October.) LT1:273 has yávan "autumn, harvest", but this word may be obsoleted by yávië. -LotR:1142, 1144, 1145/Silm:439/LT1:254, DAT, FS, NAR/KWAL, Letters:382
AVENUE OF TREES aldëon -LT1:249
AWAKE coiva- (so in LT1:257; read *cuiva- in mature Quenya? Cf. the following:) AWAKENING (noun) cuivië (obsoleting coivië in LT1:257), cuivë; AWAKENING (adj) cuivëa -KUY/Silm:429
AWAY oa, oar (viewed from the point of view of the thing, person, or place left). See also GO AWAY. -WJ:366 cf. 361
AWNING teltassë -GL:70
AXE pelecco -LT2:346

<B>

BABE lapsë -LAP
BACK - LT2:338 mentions a Gnomish word alm, said to mean "the broad of the back from shoulder to shoulder, back, shoulders". It is stated that the "Qenya" cognate of this Gnomish word occurs in the name Aikaldamor - i.e., #aldamo or #aldamor? But this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya.
BACK- (prefix) at-, ata- (re-, again-); THOSE WHO GO BACK Nandor (Elves that left the March from Cuiviénen) -AT(AT), WJ:384
BACKWARDS nan- (prefix?) -MBAS
BAD - Gnomish fêg is so glossed in GL:34, and this is equated with Q faica, glossed "contemptible, mean" under SPAY.
BAKE masta- -MBAS
BALE OUT calpa- (draw water, scoop out) -KALPA
BALL coron -KOR
BALROG Valarauko (pl. Valaraukar) (so in the Silmarillion - in Etym the Quenya form of Sindarin balrog is malarauco, while LT1:250 gives Malcaraucë) -Silm:35/425/439, RUK
BAND nossë (army, troop) -LT2:340
BANK (esp. of river) ráva -RAMBÁ
BARK - Tolkien originally thought that parma "book" really meant "skin, bark; parchment", with "book, writings" as the secondary meaning. But in Etym parma is derived from a stem meaning "compose, put together", obsoleting the old etymology. -LT2:346, contrast PAR
BASE sundo (root, root-word) (pl. #sundar, isolated from Tarmasundar in UT:166), talan (talam-) (floor, ground), talma (foundation, root); BASE-STRUCTURE sundocarmë -SUD, WJ:319, TALAM, TAL, LT:343
BATTER palpa- (beat) -PALAP
BAY (small and landlocked) hópa (haven, harbour) -KHOP
BE The only forms of the verb "to be" in the published corpus are "is" , nar "are", and nai "be it that" (mistranslated "maybe" in LotR). The word ëa is variously translated "is", "it is", "let it be". Fíriel's Song contains a word ye "is", but ye may be obsolete in mature Quenya. For "was", some writers have used , pl. ("were") ner. Cf. also uin and umin "I do not, am not" (1. pers. aorist), pa.t. úmë. -Nam/RGEO:67, An Introduction to Elvish:5, Silm:21/391, FS, UGU/UMU
BE GONE! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) -WJ:364
BEACH falas (falass-), falassë (shore, line of surf), falas, hresta (ablative hrestallo is attested) -LT1:253, Silm:431, PHAL/LT2:339, MC:221/222/223
BEAR (vb) #col- (verb stem isolated from #colindo "bearer". Cf. mel- "to love", melindo "lover". #Col- can also be translated *"wear" [of clothes], cf. the past participle colla "borne, worn".) BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *"I bear fruit", stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1. person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) -LotR:989, cf. Letters:308 and MEL, MR:385, LT1:273
BEAR (noun) morco -MORÓK
BEARD fanga (obsoleting vanga in GL:21; GL:34 has fangë "long beard", while GL:63 gives poa. Use fanga.) -SPÁNAG
BEARER #colindo (only attested in the pl compound cormacolindor "Ring-bearers") -LotR:989, cf. Letters:308
BEAT palpa- (batter) -PALAP
BEAUTIFUL vanya (Note: a homonym means "disappear"), linda, calwa, vanima (nominal pl vanimar "beautiful ones" and partitive plural genitive vanimálion are attested) (fair, proper, right). According to MR:49, Maiar means "the Beautiful", but in Quenya this is the name of an order of spirits and cannot be used as a general adjective. BEAUTY vanessë -BAN, SLIN, LT1:254, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, LT1:272, MR:49
BED caima; BEDCHAMBER caimasan (þ) (pl. caimasambi); BEDRIDDEN caimassë, caimassëa (sick); LYING IN BED (noun) caila (sickness) -KAY, STAB
BEE nier (honey-bee), nion -GL:60
BEECH feren, fernë (pl. ferni in both cases) (LT2:343 gives neldor "beech"; this word may be obsolete in mature Quenya.) -PHER
BEECHEN ferinya -PHÉREN
BEGET nosta- (also glossed "give birth"), onta- (pa.t. ónë or ontanë); BEGETTER #nostar (see note), ontaro (m.), ontarë (f.) (parent). (In LotR, the form nostari "begetters, parents" occurs; sg #nostar. Nostari was changed from ontari in Tolkien's first draft [see SD:73], so he may have scrapped ontaro, ontarë in favour of #nostar [or m. *nostaro, f. *nostarë???] Did he also reject the verb onta- in favour of nosta-?) -SD:73, ONO, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308
BEGINNING *yessë (Corrected from the actual reading esse, derived from a stem that was marked with a query by Tolkien because esse also = name. Evidence from LotR indicates that he decided to change the stem in question from ESE to *YESE, thus eliminating this homophony: In LotR:1142 we find yestarë, apparently meaning *"first-day" - it is not translated, but it was the name of the first day of the year and means "day". In Etym [stem ESE] the word for "first" was esta. So for esta "first", esse "beginning" and essea "?primary" [gloss illegible], we should evidently read *yesta, *yessë and yessëa.) -ESE/ESET
BEGOTTEN - see FIRST-BEGOTTEN.
BEHOLD cen- (see) (future tense cenuva is attested) -MC:222
BEING ëala (spirit).Pl. ëalar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs. -MR:165
BEING ALIVE (noun) cuilë -KUY
BELEGOST Túrosto (Mickleburg) -WJ:389
BELERIAND Hecelmar, Heceldamar (lit. *"home of the Eglath", q.v.) This is said to be the name for Beleriand used "in the language of the loremasters of Aman". The cognate of Sindarin "Beleriand" is #Valariandë; only the form Valarianden is attested (a genitive formation from an earlier "Qenya" variant; in mature Quenya it would be a dative). The latter may be the name used in Exilic Quenya. Beleriand was also called Ingolondë "Land of the Gnomes [Noldor]". -WJ:365, LR:202, ÑGOLOD
BELL nyellë -NYEL
BELLIED #cumba (isolated from sauricumba "foulbellied"). This adjective may point to *cumbo or something similar as the likely word for "belly". -SD:68, 72
BELOVED melda (dear). Cf. nessamelda, *"beloved of Nessa", a flagrant evergreen tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar. -MEL, UT:456
BELZAGAR Calmacil -UT:222
BEND #cúna- (derived from the adj. cúna "bent"; see MC:223. In menel acúna "the heavens bending" the word is used intransitively.) -MC:222/223 cf. 215
BENEATH undu (down, under) -UNU
BENT cúna (curved; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND), raica (crooked, wrong), cauca (crooked, humped), sara (þ) (stiff dry grass) -MC:223, RAYAK, LT1:257, STAR
BERRY piucca -GL:64 (glossed "blackberry" in LT2:347)
BESIDE ara, also ar- as prefix. -AR
BETWEEN imbë -Nam/RGEO:67
BEYOND pella (a postposition in Quenya: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars") -Nam, MC:222
BIER tulma -LT1:270
BIG DIPPER see SICKLE OF THE VALAR.
BIPED #attalya (Only pl Attalyar is attested. The word was used of the Petty-dwarves, q.v.) -WJ:389
BIRD aiwë, filit (pl filici) (Note: both aiwë and filit are stated to mean "small bird", not "bird" in general), ambalë, ammalë (= yellow bird), lindo (= "singer", singing bird). LT1:273 also has wilin; this may or may not be a valid word in mature Quenya. -AIWÊ, PHILIK, SMAL, LIN
BIRTH, BIRTHDAY nosta; GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed "beget", q.v.) -LT1:272
BITE (vb) nac- BITE (noun) nahta -NAK
BITTER sára -SAG
BLACK morë (in compounds mori-, e.g. Moriquendi), morna, morqua; BLACKNESS mórë (night); BLACKHANDED morimaitë, BLACKBERRY piucca (only "berry" in GL:64); BLACK FOE Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho) (Morgoth) -MOR, LT1:260, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, LT2:347, MR:194
BLADE hyanda (share), (sword blade:) +russë (corruscation) -LT2:342, RUS
BLAZE urya- (The stem this word is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin also being a name of the Sun) -UR, LT1:271
BLESS laita- (praise) (Imperative a laita and fut #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, "we shall praise [or bless] them".) BLESSED alya, almárëa (prosperous, rich, abundant), herenya (wealthy, fortunate, rich), aman ("blessed, free from evil" - Aman was "chiefly used as the name of the land where the Valar dwelt." [WJ:399]. BLESSED BEING Manwë (the King of the Valar); BLESSEDNESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (happiness), "BLESSINGS", BLESSEDNESS, BLISS almië, almarë; FINAL BLISS manar, mandë (doom, final end, fate, fortune) -LotR:989 cf Letters:308; GAL, KHER, Letters:283, LT1:272, MAN/MANAD
BLIGHT yaru (gloom) -GL:37
BLINK tihta- (peer) -MC:223
BLOCK tápë (3 pers sg aorist), pa.t. tampë -TAP
BLOOD sercë (so according to Silm appendix; Etym has yár [yar-]) -Silm:437, YAR
BLOSSOM (white) lossë, ("of flowers in bunches or clusters":) *lohtë (corrected from the actual reading loktë because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya.) -LOT, LT1:258
BLOT motto -MBOTH
BLUE luin, #luinë (pl. luini in Nam; Etym and LT1:262 has lúnë), ninwa, ulban (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya), PALE BLUE helwa -Nam/LT2:340, LT1:262, LUG, WJ:399, 3EL
BOAT luntë; SMALL BOAT venë (vessel, dish) -LUT, LT1:254
BODY hroa (In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body'" [as opposed to "soul"]. Hroa is also used = "physical matter"), DEAD BODY loico (corpse); BODILY sarcuva (corporeal) -MR:216, 219; MC:223, LT2:347
BOLD verya, canya BOLDNESS verië -BER, KAN
BOLSTER nirwa (cushion) -NID
BOND nútë (knot), vérë (troth, compact, oath) Pl. probably *vérer, *núter not *véri, *núti; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver. -NUT, WED
BONE axo (pl axor is attested) -MC:222, 223
BOOK parma (writings); BOOK LANGUAGE (=Quenya) parmalambë -PAR/UT:219, 460, LT2:346
BORDER réna (edge, margin); ríma (edge, hem) -REG, Rî
BORN #nóna (isolated from Apanónar, the "Afterborn") -Silm:122/381
BORNE colla (pa.p. of col- "bear") (worn). Also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak". -MR:385
BOSOM palúrë (surface, bosom of earth), súma (hollow cavity) -PAL, MC:223
BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill) -LT1:269
BOTH yúyo -YÛ
BOUND nauta (obliged) -NUT
BOW (vb ) cawin ("I bow", 1. pers. aorist); BOW (noun) quinga, (also = crescent Moon), lúva, cúnë (crescent); RAINBOW helyanwë ("sky-bridge"), Ilweran, Ilweranta (LT2:348 has iluquinga "sky-bow", but this word was obsoleted when Tolkien changed the meaning of ilu from "sky" to "universe".) BOWLEGGED quingatelco (So it is translated, but this must really be a noun: "bow-leg" [quinga + telco]. No Quenya adjectives end in -o, unless this is the only one. Read *quingatelca for "bow-legged"? Cf. one of the other words from the same source, sincahonda, changed from sincahondo in an earlier draft - but at that time Tolkien had already omitted quingatelco and hence did not change its ending: See SD:72.) -LT1:257, SD 68, 72, KWIG, KU3, LT1:256, LotR:1154, LT1:271
BOWL fion (goblet), #salpë (isolated from tanyasalpë "Bowl of Fire") -LT1:253, 292
BRANCH olwa -GÓLOB
BRAND yulma (Note: a homonym means "cup".) -YUL cf. Nam
BREAD masta; LIFE-BREAD (= lembas) coimas (prob. *coimast-, cf. masta "bread") -MBAS, Silm:406/429
BREAK (vb) rac- (past participle rácina "broken" is attested); BREAK APART terhat- (pa.t. terhantë); BREAK ASUNDER hat- (pa.t. hantë) -MC:223, SKAT
BREATH (noun) hwesta (breeze, puff of air), súlë (þ) (spirit) (earlier [MET] form thúlë = Súlë ; BREATH (vb) súya- (þ); BREATHER Súlimo (þ) (a title of Manwë; this is the literal meaning according to Silm:420); BREATH FORTH see EXPIRE. -SWES, THÛ/LotR:1157
BREEZE hwesta (breath, puff of air), GENTLE BREEZE vílë; BREEZY vilin (airy) -SWES, LotR:1157, LT1:273
BRIDE indis (wife) (This word may obsolete akairis in LT1:252) -NDIS/UT:8
BRIDEGROOM ender -NDER
BRIDGE yanwë (joining, isthmus), yanta (yoke) -YAT, LotR:1157
BRILLIANCE alcar, alcarë (splendour, radiance), calassë (clarity); BRILLIANT alcarinqua (glorious) -AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, GL:39
BROAD - LT2:338 gives a word aica "broad, vast", but this is probably obsoleted by aica "sharp, fell, terrible, dire" in later writings.
BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of ship), BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet (short stabbing sword) -LAG, UT:284/432
BROKEN rácina -MC:223
BROOCH tancil (pin) -TAK
BROOD luvu- (lower) -LT1:259
BROOK nellë (GL :46 has wentë) -NEN
BROTHER toron (pl. torni) (= natural brother); otorno sworn brother, associate BROTHERHOOD onóro (of bloodkinship), otornassë (the latter is evidently the "brotherhood" of otornor, sworn brothers) -TOR, NÔ
BROWN varnë (swart, dark brown) (in compounds varni-) -BARÁN
BUD tuima (sprout); BUDDING see SPRING-TIME. -TUY, LT1:269
BUFFET taran, tarambo -LT2:337
BUILD carin ("I make, build", 1. pers. aorist - according to FS and SD:246 the past tense is cárë, but Etym has carnë; writers should probably use the latter (not to be confused with the adjective carnë "red". Past participle #carna *"built, made" is attested in Vincarna *"newly-made" in MR:305.) BUILDING car (card-) (house), ampano (= especially building of wood, wooden hall), ataquë (construction); BUILDER samno (þ) (carpenter, wright) -KAR, PAN, TAK, STAB
BULL tarucco, tarunco -LT2:347
BUNCHES (of flowers) see BLOSSOM.
BURDENSOME lumna (lying heavy, oppressive, ominous) -DUB
BURLY polda (strong) -POL
BU RN usta- (transitive, e.g. *Fëanáro ustanë i ciryar "Fëanor burnt the ships"), urya- (intransitive, e.g. *i ciryar uryaner "the ships were burning") -LT1:271
BUSH tussa -TUS
BUT nan (so in Namárië and Fíriel's Song; Etym has , nán. clashes with "is"); er (only, one, alone, but, still); BUT YET a-nanta, ananta (and yet) -NDAN, LT1:269, Nam/FS
BUTTERFLY wilwarin (wilwarind-) -WIL/MC:222, 223/LT1:273
BUTTOCKS hacca (hams) -GL:47
-BY-mas (final element in place-names, see -TON) -LT1:250

<C>

CALACIRIAN Calaciryan (prob. *Calaciryand-), full form Calaciryandë (i.e., "the region of Eldamar...in and near the entrance to the ravine [of Calacirya], where the Light was brighter and the land more beautiful") -RGEO:70 cf. LotR:252
CALL yello (shouth of triumph) -GYEL
CANDLE lícuma (taper) -MC:223
CANOPY (vb) telta- (overshadow, screen), CANOPY (noun) telimbo (sky) -TEL, LT1:268
CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) -LT2:347
CAPE mundo (nose, snout) (Note: mundo also means "ox".) -MBUD
CARANTHIR Morifinwë, short form Moryo (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his "mother-name" [q.v.] Carnistir.) -PM:353
CARCANET firinga (necklace) -LT2:346/GL:36
CAROUSAL yulmë (drinking) (Note: a homonym means "smouldering heat") -WJ:416
CARPENTER samno (þ) (wright, builder) -STAB
CARRY - GL:38 has yulu-, but in WJ:416 the same stem (there spelt JULU) is said to mean "drink", indicating that yulu- "carry" is obsolete in mature Quenya. Use rather #col-; see BEAR.
CART norollë -GL:31
?CASSIOPEIA Wilwarin (the identification of this constellation is not certain. Wilwarin means "butterfly".) -Silm:426
CASTLE OF CUSTODY - this is mentioned as the approximate meaning of Mandos (stem Mandost-) -MR:350
CAT mëoi -LT2:348
CATCH (noun) atsa (hook, claw) -GAT
CAUSE (vb) tyar- -KYAR
CAVE felya, rondo , rotelë; ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) -PHÉLEG, ROD, LT2:347, PM:365
CAVITY (hollow) súma (bosom) -MC:223
CEASE hauta- (take a rest, stop), pusta- (stop, put a stop to), tyel- (end) -KHAW, PUS, KYEL
CELEBORN Telporno (Letters:425) or Teleporno (UT:266). (The latter is stated to be the Telerin form, while Telporno must be the form used in Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Altáriel vs. Alatáriel; see GALADRIEL.)
CELEBRIMBOR (= "Silver-fist") Telperinquar (possibly *Telperinquár-. Cf. quárë "fist"). -Silm:429
CELEGORM Turcafinwë, short form Turco (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is a cognate of his mother-name [q.v.] Tyelcormo "hasty-riser"; the latter name was "never used in narrative".) -PM:352, 353
CELOS Celussë (see UT:426)
CENTRE endë (core, middle), tólë -NÉD, ÉNED, LT1:269
CENTURY haranyë (or perhaps it means the last day of a century - Tolkien's wording is not clear. The latter interpretation may be more likely.) -LotR:1142
CHAIN Angainor (= "The Great Chain" with which Morgoth was twice bound; LT1:249 has the form Angaino) -Silm:59
CHAMBER sambë (þ) (-san, -samb- in compounds; cf. BEDCHAMBER) (room) -STAB
CHAMPION aráto (eminent man) -Silm:428
CHANGE (vb) #ahya- (only pa.t. ahyanë is attested) -PM:395
CHANNEL celma -KEL
CHANT lirin ("I chant", 1. pers. aorist) (sing) -LIR1
CHEESE tyuru- (so in GL:28; why the hyphen?)
CHERRY pio (this word was also applied to plums). CHERRY TREE aipio (also used = "plum tree"???) -LT2:347, GL:18
CHIEF (adj) héra (principal); CHIEF (noun) #turco (isolated from Turcomund "chief of bulls, *chief bull"; this may not be pure Quenya, but Turco appears as a the short name of Turcafinwë, Celegorm's Quenya name - though that is translated "strong, powerful (in body)" rather than referring to more "political" power) -KHER, Letters:423, PM:352
CHIEFTAIN haran (pl harni) (in Etym also = king, but in LotR and other texts the Quenya word for "king" is aran pl. arani - see KING), cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (ruler, governor, commander) -3AR, UT:400
CHILD hína, also vocative hina with a short vowel, used when addressing a (young) child. Pl. híni rather than hínar; see CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR below. "Child" as the last element in compounds: -hin (-hín-, pl. -híni), e.g. CHILDREN OF ERU Eruhíni from sg. #Eruhin; CHILDREN OF ILÚVATAR Híni Ilúvataro; MY CHILD hinya (short for hínanya). (For "child", Etym also has seldë; Tolkien changed the meaning from "daughter".) -WJ:403, Silm:387/432, SEL-D-
CHILL ninquë (pallid, white); BE CHILL (of weather) nicu- (be cold) -WJ:417 cf. NIK-W-
CHILLY ringa (damp, cold) -LT1:265
CHOKE quoro- (suffocate), CHOKED quorin (drowned) -LT1:264
CHOOSING #cilmë (isolated from Essecilmë "name-choosing", q.v.) -MR:214
CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT lúmequenta (history) -LU
CIRCLE rindë; CIRCULAR rinda; CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE ("especially on a hill-top") corin -RIN, KOR/LT1:257
CITY osto (town with wall round) -OS
CLAD vaina -LT1:272
CLAMOUR yalmë -NGYAL (see NGAL)
CLAN nossë (family, "house") < i>-NÔ
CLARITY calassë (brilliance) -GL:39
CLASP tangwa (hasp) -TAK
CLAW atsa (hook, catch), #racca (isolated from raccalepta, see below); CLAW-FINGERED raccalepta -GAT, SD:68, 72
CLEAN poica -POY
CLEARED (of land) latin, latina (free, open) -LAT
CLEAVE hyarin ("I cleave", 1. pers. aorist), CLEAVER #hyando in Sangahyando "Throng-cleaver, Cleaver of throngs" -SYAD, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425
CLEAVE TO himya- (abide by, stick to) -KHIM
CLEFT yáwë (ravine, gulf); sanca (þ) (split), hyatsë (gash), ciris (crack), falqua (mountain pass, ravine), cilya (gorge, pass between hills) (so in Etym, but cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] - though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5.) -YAG, STAK, SYAD, RGEO:70/WJ:403, LT2:337, 341, KIL
CLIFF ollo (seaward precipice) (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) -LT1:252
CLOAK colla (vestment, actually a past participle "borne, worn" used as a noun). GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo. Note that colla has become #collo because -o is a masculine ending.) (Thingol) -MR:385
CLOTH lannë (tissue) -LAN
CLOUD fanya (white cloud; pl. fanyar is attested), lumbo (pl lumbor is attested. In LT1:259, it is stated that this word applies to a "dark lowering cloud"), ungo (dark shadow). (In ancient times the Elves probably also used the word fana [in Etym fána] for "cloud" or "veil", but in Quenya it came to denote the visible bodies in which the Valar manifested themselves to incarnates. When fana no longer meant "cloud", this meaning was evidently transferred to the derivative fanya, originally probably meaning "white" or "white thing".) UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) -SPAN, MC:222, UÑG, Nam, RGEO:67, SYAD, RGEO:74, MC:223
CLUSTERS (of flowers) see BLOSSOM.
COAT vacco (jacket) -GL:21
COBWEB línë -SLIG
CODE OF SIGNS tengwesta (system of signs, grammar); GESTURE-CODE hwermë -WJ:394 cf. TEK, WJ:395
COLD (adj) ringa (so in MC:222 and LT1:265; Etym has ringë, which is also a noun meaning "cold lake/pool in the mountains"), (damp, chilly), yelwa; COLD (noun?) niquë, also vb niquë- "it is cold, it freezes"; BE COLD, CHILL (of weather) nicu- -MC:222, RINGI, LT1:260, WJ:417
COLLAPSE (vb) talta- (slip, slide down), COLLAPSE (noun) atalantë (downfall) -MC:223
COLLECT hosta- (gather, assemble); COLLECTION OF LEAVES olassië (foliage) -KHOTH/MC:223, Letters:282
COME tulin ("I come", 1. pers. aorist); perfect #utúlië and future #tuluva are attested (the latter in entuluva "shall come again". Tulin obsoletes tulu- in LT1:270). COME AWAY hótuli- ("so as to leave a place or group and join another in the thought or place of the speaker") -TUL, LotR:1003, Silm:229, WJ:368
COMMANDER cáno ("usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank", PM:345) (governor, chieftain, commander) -PM:345
COMMANDMENT axan (law, rule) -WJ:399
COMMERSE mancalë -MBAKH
COMMUNICATION centa (as in Ósanwë-centa, Communication of Thought. In other contexts, centa must be translated *"enquiry" or *"essay") -MR:415
COMPACT vérë (troth, oath, bond) Pl. probably *vérer not *véri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver.) -WED
COMPEL mauya-; COMPULSION mausta -MBAW
COMPLAINT nur (growl) -LT1:263
COMPLETELY aqua (fully, altogether, wholly) -WJ:392
CONCEAL halya- (veil, screen from light) -SKAL
CONCEALED furin or hurin (hidden) -LT2:340
CONCEPTION nóa (pl. nówi), (nów-) -NOWO
CONCH hyalma (shell, horn of Ulmo) -SYAL
CONCLUDE telya- (transitive) (wind up, finish); CONCLUSION telma (further defined as "anything used to finish off a work or an affair") -WJ:411
CONFUSED rúcina (shattered, disordered) -MC:223
CONSONANT - Tolkien notes: "Since...in the mode of spelling commonly used the full signs were consonantal, in ordinary non-technical use tengwar [sg tengwa, see LETTER] became equivalent to 'consonants'." Cf. also surya "spirant consonant" and punta "stopped consonant". -WJ:396, SUS, PUT (see PUS)
CONSPICOUS minda (prominent) -MIN
CONSTRUCTION tanwë (craft, thing made, construction, devise) ataquë (building) -TAN, TAK
CONTEMPTIBLE faica (mean) -SPAY
CONTINUAL vorima (repeated); CONTINUALLY voro (also voro- in compounds) -BOR
CONTRARY, ON THE - see NO
CONTROL turin ("I...control", 1. pers. aorist) (pa.t. turnë) (wield, govern); IN CONTROL OF (possessing) arwa (followed by gen, e.g. *i heru arwa i nerion "the lord in control of the men") -TUR, 3AR
COOKED FOOD apsa (meat) -AP
COPING-STONE see FINISH.
COPPER tambë; OF COPPER tambina; COPPER-COLOURED aira (ruddy, red) -LT1:250, 256, 268
COPULA telluma (altered from earlier telumë under influence of a Valarin word; pl. tellumar is attested) (dome), coromindo (dome) -Nam/WJ:399/411, KOR
CORE endë (centre, middle) -NÉD, ÉNED
CORNFLOWER menelluin (lit. *"sky-blue") -Pictures of J. R. R. Tolkien
CORPOREAL sarcuva (bodily) -LT2:347
CORPSE quelet (pl. queletsi), loico (dead body); CORPSE-CANDLE loicolícuma -KWEL, MC:223
CORRUSCATION russë (+swordblade) -RUS
COTTAGE - LT2:336 has os(t) "house and cottage", but this word is probably obsolete - osto means "city" in mature Quenya.
COUNT - the stem not- can be isolated from the word for "countable", see below. It actually occurs in Etym, but is glossed "reckon" instead. COUNT UP onot- (cf. not- "reckon"), COUNTABLE #nótima (isolated from únótimë "not-countable, numberless", pl.). NOT COUNTING hequa (leaving aside, excluding, except) -NOT, Nam, RGEO:67, WJ:364, 365
COUNTRY nórë (land, race, nation, native land, family), #nórië (only attested in a compound, in the ablative case: sindanóriello, "grey-country-from", "out of a grey country". -NÔ, Nam/RGEO:67
COURAGE huorë (only attested as a proper name: Huorë, lit. "heart-vigour") -KHÔ-N
COURSE tië (line, direction, way, path, road) -TE3, RGEO:67
COURT paca (paved floor) -GL:63
COVER topë (aorist sg) (pa.t. tompë), untúpa- (lit. "down-roof") -TOP, Nam/RGEO:67
COVERING telmë (hood) -TEL
COW (milch cow) yaxë. (An alternative form yaxi, glossed "cow", looks like a plural in mature Quenya.) -GL:36
CRACK ciris (cleft) -LT2:335
CRAFT tanwë (thing made, device, construction); curwë. CRAFTSMAN tano (smith) -KUR
CREATE onta (pa.t. ónë, ontanë) -ONO
CREATURE onna; DEFORMED/HIDEOUS CREATURE ulundo (monster) -ONO, ÚLUG
CRESCENT cúnë (bow) -LT1:271
CREST (of wave) wingë (wingi-) (foam, spindrift). LT1:256 gives ormë "crest, summit", but in mature Quenya ormë means "wrath, haste, violence, rushing". CRESTED WAVE falma -WIG/LT1:273, PHAL
CROOKED hwarin; raica (bent, wrong), rempa (hooked), cauca (bent, humped) -SKWAR, RÁYAK, REP, LT1:260
CROSSBAR hwarma -SKWAR
CROSSING tarna (passage, #ford) -LT2:347
CROW quáco (so in WJ:395; Etym has corco ) -WJ:395, KORKA (see KARKA)
CROWD sanga (throng, press); rimbë (host) -STAG/Silm:438, RIM
CROWN rië; CROWNED rína; STAR-CROWNED, CROWNED WITH STARS (a name of Taniquetil) Elerrína (so in Silm; Etym has Elerína) -RIG, EL, Silm:42
CRUEL nwalca (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalca must be from older *ngwalca, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalca.) -ÑGWAL
CRUMBLE #ruxa- (only part. ruxala is attested) -MC:222 cf 215
CRYSTAL SUBSTANCE silima (a substance Fëanor alone knew how to make; the Silmarils were made of it. Etymologically, the word apparently means simply *"white-shining thing", or perhaps *"[substance] apt to shine white".) -RGEO:73, Silm:437
CUNNING - LT1:253 has findë, finië, but these words may not be valid in mature Quenya (in Etym, findë means "tress, lock of hair").
CUP yulma -Nam, RGEO:67
CUPOLA coromindo (dome) -KOP
CURUFIN Curufinwë, short form Curvo. (His "mother-name", never used in narrative, was Atarincë.) -PM:352, 353
CURUNÍR Curumo (Saruman) -UT:393, 401
CURVED cúna (bent; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND) -MC:223
CUSHION nirwa -NID
CUSTODY mando (safe keeping); CASTLE OF CUSTODY Mandos (Mandost-) -MR:350
CUT (vb) rista-; venië (infinitive? stem #ven-?) (shape), CUT (noun) rista, venwë (shape), CUT OFF (and get rid of or lose a portion:) auciri-, (so as to have or or use a required portion:) hóciri- -RIS, LT1:254, WJ:365-366, 368
CYCLE randa (age) -RAD

<D>

DAERON see DAIRON
DAGGER sicil (knife), naica -SIK, GL:37
DAIRON Sairon -GL:29 (called Daeron in the published Silmarillion)
DALE nal, nallë (dell); DALE-SPRITES tavar (pl. tavarni) -LT1:261, LT1:267
DAMP ringa (chilly, cold) -LT1:265
DANCE (vb) lilta- -LILT
DANGLE linga- -LING
DARE verya- (cf. BOLD) -BER
DARK (adj.) morna (gloomy, sombre, black), nulla (dusky, obscure), lóna (Note: a homonym means "island"), lúrëa (overcast), DARK OR HIDDEN tumna (low-lying, low, profound, deep) DARK (noun), hui (fog, murk, night); DARK, DARKNESS mornië, mórë (blackness, night), mor, lúmë (Note: lúmë also means "hour, time"), lómë (night, twilight, gloom), huinë (shadow, gloom); DARK ELVES Moriquendi, Morimor (Lómëarni in LT1:259 is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya); DARK ONE (=Morgoth) morion; DARK WEATHER lúrë; DARK LOWERING CLOUD lumbo (pl. lumbor is attested); DARK VALE tumbo (deep valley) -Letters:382, NDUL, DO3, LT1:259, LT1:271, LT1:253, MOR, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, Silm:431, MC:222 cf. 215, WJ:361/Silm:388, Nam/RGEO:67, FS, LT1:259, 269
DAUGHTER yendë, yen, -iel (suffix, e.g. Uinéniel "daughter of Uinen" [UT:182]; this suffix may obsolete the earlier [TLT] ending -wen, mentioned in LT1:271). The stem YEL, from which -iel must be derived, was removed from Etym. However, the UT example just mentioned is from a later text, indicating that Tolkien restored -iel. Perhaps yeldë was restored as the independent word for "daughter" at the same time and is to be preferred to yendë, yen. Distinguish -riel in Altáriel (Galadriel), which does not mean "daughter" and becomes -riell- before an ending. -YÔ, YEL, 182/469
DAWN ára (obsoleting órë in LT1:264; this word means "rising" or "heart" in mature Quenya), +amaurëa (early day) -AR1 , MC:223
DAY aurë (sunlight; Etym gives arë), arya (= 12 hours), (= 24 hours, counted from sunset to sunset), sana (= 24 hours), DAYTIME arië, EARLY DAY +amaurëa (dawn), DAYLIGHT - LT1:254 gives calma, but this word means "lamp" in LotR. LAST DAY OF YEAR quantien, DAYSPRING tuilë -AR1, Silm:229/234/439, LotR:1141, LT1:250, MC:223, YEN
DEAD firin (= dead by natural cause), qualin (related to qualmë "agony, death" and probably has darker connotations than firin), vanwa (departed, lost, past, gone, vanished, no longer to be had), hessa (withered). DEAD BODY loico (corpse) -KWAL, PHIR, MC:223, LT1:255, WJ:366
DEAR melda (beloved), melin, moina (familiar), #melya (isolated from Melyanna "dear gift", Melian's Quenya name), valda (worth, worthy). Cf. also the "suffix of endearment" -ya mentioned in UT:418: Anardilya *"dear Anardil" (UT:174). -MEL, MOY, Silm:434, GL:23
DEATH qualmë, unqualë (agony), nuru (Nuru = Mandos), fairë (natural death [as act]) (Note: fairë also means "radiance" and "phantom", and even [in LT1:250] "free"), urdu -KWAL/LT1:264, ÑGUR, PHIR, LT2:342
DECLIVITY pendë (downslape, slope) -PEN
DEEP tumna (low-lying, low, profound, dark or hidden), núra; DEEP VALLEY tumbo (dark vale) -NÛ, TUB
DEFORMED CREATURE ulundo (hideous creature, monster) -ÚLUG
DELL nal, nallë (dale) -LT1:261
DEMON rauko (pl. #raukar, isolated from Valaraukar "Balrogs". LT1:250 gives araukë; WJ:415 has rauko and arauko, defined as "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature".) See also ORC. -RUK, Silm:436, WJ:415
DENETHOR Nanisáro (þ) -LR:188
DENTAL SERIES tincotéma (t-series) -LotR:1154
DENY lala- (Note: a homonym means "laugh".) -LA
DEPART vanya- (pa.t. vannë). Lendë pa.t. of lelya/linna "go" is also glossed as "departed". DEPARTED (adj) vanwa (gone, vanished, lost, past, no longer to be had, dead) -WAN, LED, WJ:366, Nam
DESCENDANT indyo (grandchild) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya. The Noldor likely used the form *inyo.) MALE DESCENDANT yondo (son) (In LT2:344, it is said that yondo usually meant "(great) grandson", but in mature Quenya it simply means "son".) -ÑGYO(N)
DESERT erumë (cf. Eruman a desert north-east of Valinor) -ERE
DESERTED erda (solitary) -LT1:269
DESIRE (vb) merë (3. pers. sg. aorist; stem #mer-, pa.t. mernë) (want, wish); DESIRE (noun) írë, milmë (greed). (Note: írë also means "when". The stem YES yields a word yesta "desire", but this clashes with the corrected/updated form of esta - see FIRST.) DESIREABLE írima (loveable), DESIRER Irmo (name of a Vala) -MER, ID, MIL-IK, YES, WJ:403
DESTINE martya-; DESTINY maranwë -MBARAT
DETERMINANT VOWEL sundóma (lit. *"base-vowel, root-vowel". Christopher Tolkien notes: "Very briefly indeed, the Quendian consonantal base or sundo was characterized by a 'determinant vowel' or sundóma: thus the sundo KAT has a medial sundóma 'A', and TALAT has the sundóma repeated. In derivative forms the sundóma might be placed before the first consonant, e.g. ATALAT.") -WJ:319
DEVICE tanwë (craft, thing made, construction) -TAN
DEVISE auta- (originate, invent) -GAWA
DEW rossë (fine rain, spray), rin. DEWY nítë (moist) -ROS/Letters:282, LT1:265, NEI
DEXTEROUS formaitë (right-handed) -PHOR
DIACRITIC tehta (mark [in writing], sign) (In LotR:1155, the word is applied to the supralinear vowel-marks of Fëanorian writing, and pl. tehtar is attested.) -TEK, LotR:1155
DIALECT - Tolkien notes that the word lambë was originally "nearer to our 'dialect' than to 'language', but later when the Eldar became aware of other tongues, not intelligible without study, lambe naturally became applied to the seperate languages of any people or region." Thus, lambë can hardly be used for "dialect" in Exilic Quenya. -WJ:394
DICTUM eques (pl. equessi) (proverbial dictum, quotation, saying) -WJ:392
DIE fir- (fade) -MC:223
DIPHTONG #samna (only pl samnar is attested. Distinct in Tengwar spelling from samna "wooden post", that is spelt with initial súlë instead of silmë.) -SAM
DIM TO SEE néca (vague, faint) (Pl nécë is attested) -MC:223, 222
DIRE aica (fell, terrible, sharp) -PM:347
DIRECTION tië (course, line, pathway, road) -TE3/RGEO:67
DIRTY vára (soiled) -WA3
DISAPPEAR vanya- (pa.t. vannë. Note: a homonym of vanya means "beautiful") (go, depart) -WAN
DISCOLOURED púrëa (smeared) -MC:223
DISEMBODIED SPIRIT see SPIRIT
DISGUST - feel disgust at feuya- -PHEW
DISH venë (small boat, vessel) -LT1:254
DISORDERED rúcina (confused, shattered) -MC:223
DIVIDE IN MIDDLE perya- (halve) (After perya-, a word perina is mentioned; it is undefined but must be the corresponding past participle: *"divided in middle, halved".) -PER
DIVINE valaina (= "of or belonging to the Valar", probably not to be used with reference to the One who is above them); DIVINITY valassë -BAL
DO NOT uin, umin ("I do not", 1. pers. aorist) (pa.t. úmë) (also = "am not" - see BE); DO NOT! (imperative) vá! (also = I will not); DON'T áva, avá; DON'T DO IT! áva carë!
-UGU/UMU, WJ:371
DOER tyaro (actor, agent) -KYAR
DOG huo -KHUG
DOME telluma (pl. tellumar is attested) (copula), coromindo (cupola) -Nam/WJ:399, KOR
DON'T áva, avá; DON'T DO IT! áva carë! -WJ:371
DOOM manar, mandë (final end, fate, fortune, final bliss); umbar- (umbart-) (fate) In the story of Túrin Turambar, it seems that ambar means "doom": Turambar is said to mean "Master of Doom", and Nienor even uses the word in the instrumental case: ambartanen "by doom". Similarly, LT2:348 gives ambar "Fate". But in Etym, ambar means "earth", and LotR Appendix E confirms that "fate" is umbar. DOOM RING Máhanaxar (a foreign word in Quenya, adopted and adapted from Valarin.) -MAN/MANAD, MBARAT, Silm:261, 269, LotR:1157, WJ:399
DORIATH #Lestanórë (only gen. Lestanórëo is attested) -WJ:369
DORLÓMIN Lóminórë -WJ:145
DOT pica (small spot), tixë (tiny mark, point), amatixë, nuntixë (points over and under the line of writing respectively) -PIK, TIK
DOUBLE (prob. adj) atwa, tanta; DOUBLE (vb) tatya- (repeat). (Note: tatya also means "second".) -AT(AT), TATA
DOUG maxë -MASAG
DOVE cu, cua (perhaps m. and f. respectively) -KÛ
DOWN undu (under, beneath); DOWN-FALL atalantë, atalantië (collapse); DOWN-FALLEN atalantëa (pl atalantië is attested) (ruinous); DOWN BELOW (adv.) nún (underneath); "DOWN-LICK" (i.e., cover completely) #undulav- (only pa.t. undulávë is attested) -UNU, NÛ, MC:222, 223/Letters:347, RGEO:67/Nam
DOWNSLOPE pendë (slope, declivity) -PEN/PÉNED
DRAGON lókë (serpent, snake; "so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]", LT2:85), angulókë, fenumë; WINGED DRAGON rámalókë; FIRE-DRAGON urulókë (pl. Urulóki is attested in Silm:138, there capitalized); SPARK-DRAGON fëalókë; FISH-DRAGON lingwilókë (sea-serpent) -LOK; cf. ANGWA, LT2:341, RAM, UR, PHAY, LIW
DRAKE (LT2:340) see DRAGON
DRAUGHT #yulda (only pl. yuldar is attested), suhto -Nam, SUK
DRAW tucin ("I draw", 1. pers. aorist); DRAW WATER calpa- (bale out, scoop out); DRAWING #halmë (isolated from Turuhalmë "Log-drawing") -KALPA, LotR:270
DREAD aista- -GAYAS
DREAM (noun) olor, olórë, lor; DREAMY olosta, olórëa -LOS, LT1:259, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, UT:396
DRINK (vb) sucin ("I drink", 1. pers. aorist); DRINK OF THE VALAR limpë (so glossed under LIP; "drink of the fairies" in LT1:258) or míruvórë (LT1:261); DRINKING yulmë (carousal) (Note: a homonym means "smouldering heat"); DRINKING-VESSEL yulma (cup), sungwa. -SUK, WJ:416/Nam
DRIP lipte- -LT1:258
DROP (noun) limba; LITTLE DROP liptë -LIB, LT1:258
DROWNED quorin (choked) -LT1:264
DROWSY lorda (slumbrous) -LT1:259
DRÛ (wose), DRÚADAN Rúatan (pl. Rúatani is given but seems perfectly regular) -UT:385
DRY (prob. adj not vb) parca -PÁRAK
DRYAD tavaro, tavaron (m.), tavaril (f.), nandin (further defined as "fay of the country") -TÁWAR, LT1:261
DUILIN Tulindo; HOUSE OF DUILIN Nossë Tuilinda (Tuilinda must be an adjectival form of Tuilindo) -LT2:338
DÚNEDAIN Núnatani -WJ:386
DUSK histë (also hísë, but this clashes with a word meaning "fog, mist"), lómë (night, gloom, darkness, twilight) -LT1:255
DUSKY nulla (dark, obscure) -NDUL
DUST asto -ÁS-AT
DWARF Nauco (pl. Naucor is attested; LT1:261 gives nauca instead of nauco), Norno (Naucalië, Nornalië = the whole people of the Dwarves) Casar (pl. Casari or Casári; partitive plural Casalli; the whole people of the Dwarves being called Casallië. According to WJ, Casar - Quenyaized form of Dwarvish Khazâd - "was the word most commonly used in Quenya for the Dwarves". Nauco "stunted one" and norno "thrawn one" are less polite words for "dwarf"; yet norno is stated to be "the more friendly term". But the Dwarves themselves would definitely prefer Casar.) PETTY-DWARVES Picinaucor, Pitya-naucor (lit. *"small dwarves"), Attalyar (lit. "Bipeds"). DWARROWVAULT Casarrondo (Khazad-dûm) -NAUK, WJ:388, 389
DWELLER mardo, DWELLING (noun) mar (mas-) (home), DWELLING (adj) #farnë (a pl form? Sg farna? Only attested in the compound orofarnë "mountain-dwelling". Note: farnë is also the pa.t. of farya- "suffice"); DWELLING-PLACE nórë (land, region where certain people live, nation, native land, family); DWELLING UNDERGROUND hróta (artificial cave, rockhewn hall) -LT1:251, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, NDOR, PM:365
DWINDLE píca (part. pícala is attested) (lessen) -MC:223, 222

<E>

EACH máca -GL:41
EAGLE soron, sornë (þ) (pl. sorni) (So in Etym; Letters:427 has sorno, thorno, LT1:266 also has sor. Soron/sorno obsoletes ea, earen in LT1:251 and LT2:338 - besides, ëa means "is" in mature Quenya.) KING OF EAGLES Sorontur, "EAGLE-HORN" (a great height in Númenor) Sorontil -THOR, Letters:427, UT:465
EARLY arinya; EARLY DAY +amaurëa (dawn); EARLY MORN tuilë (dayspring, spring-time) -AR1, MC:223, TUY
EARTH cemen, kemen (soil). (Note: at the time Tolkien wrote Etym, he thought of cemen as the genitive of cén, but later cemen evidently became the nominative form, as it had been in earlier writings [LT1:257]. In Silm:433, it is said that cemen [kemen] refers to "the Earth as a flat floor beneath menel, the heavens". LT1:257 also has cemi "earth, soil, land" and Kémi "Mother Earth".) EARTH-QUEEN Kementári (Yavanna's title); EARTHEN, OF EARTH cemina. (LT2:343 gives indi "earthdwellers", another word for "men", but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya.) EARTH (= world) Ambar (world) (Tolkien equated Ambar with Oikoumene, a Greek word denoting "world" considered as "the inhabited world of Men". But ambar also seems to mean "doom", q.v. MR:337 (cf. WJ:419) has Imbar instead of Ambar; the literal meaning of both words is said to be "habitation") -KEM/Silm:433/LT1:257, MBAR cf. Letters:283 or SD:409
EAST rómen (allative Rómenna and ablative Rómello in Namárië is capitalized), róna; EASTERN rómenya (Entar, Entardar "Outer Lands, Middle-earth" is also glossed as "East" once, as opposed to the Blessed Realm of the West.) The words órë "dawn, Sunrise, East" and its corresponding adjective órëa (LT1:264) are probably not valid words in mature Quenya; see DAWN. Neither can Ostar "East" be a valid word; see GATE. EAST-VICTOR Rómendacil (one of the Kings of Gondor) EAST-LANDS Orrostar (a region in Númenor) -RÔ/LotR:1157, UT:463, Nam, EN, LotR:1075, 1081, UT:165, 459
EAT mat- -MAT
ECHO láma (ringing sound - so in Etym, but see SOUND), nalláma (In Etym, the second a of the latter word has an undefined diacritic here represented by '.) ECHOING lámina -LAM
EDDY hwinya- (swirl, gyrate); hwindë (whirlpool) -SWIN
EDGE réna, ríma -REG, RÎ
EGLATH (or EGLAIN, EGLADHRIM) Heceldi (the "Forsaken" Elves, especially the Eldar left in Beleriand; sg Hecel is given. MR:170 has Ecelli.) -WJ:365 cf. Silm:68
EIGHT tolto -TOL1-OTH/OT
ELBOW ólemë -LT1:258
ELEPHANT andamunda -MBUD
ELEVEN minquë < i>-MINIK-W-, LT1:260
ELF quendë (generic, seldom used in sg; pl Quendi is the usual form; there are gender-spesific forms quendu m. and quendi f., but they seem to be rare; pl. quendur and quendir is attested), Elda (originally generic, but later [MET] used of Elves of the Three Kindreds [Noldor, Vanyar, Teleri] only. That was at least the proper usage: Elda was the normal word for "elf" in Valinor, as all Elves there were Eldar. An archaic variant of Elda was Eldo.) ELVES OF AMAN Amanyar (sg #Amanya), ELVES WHO REFUSED TO JOIN IN THE WESTWARD MARCH (from Cuiviénen) Avari (sg Avar in WJ:371; Avar or Avaro in Etym), also called Avamanyar "those who did not go to Aman, because they would not" (distinguish Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those who did not in the event reach Aman", though they did join in the march from Cuiviénen; these are also called Heceldi or Ecelli, see EGLATH). See also DARK ELVES, GREEN-ELVES, GREY-ELVES, HIGH-ELVES, LIGHT-ELVES, SEA-ELVES, LITTLE ELF. Cf. also ELVENHOME Eldamar, Elendë. ELF-PEOPLE Eldalië, ELVISH Eldarinwa (adj only; "Elvish" meaning Elvish language is simply Eldarin. Properly, these words for "Elvish" apply to the Tree Kindreds only, not to all the Quendi.) Quenderin ("Elvish" referring to all the Quendi, "Quendian"; this remained a learned word) -WJ:361/KWEN(ED), MR:229 ELED, Silm:424, AB/WJ:371/Silm:65/MR:163, WJ:363, Silm:23/392, MR:415, WJ:407
ELF-FRIEND Elendil (actually meaning *"star-friend". Tolkien notes: "It is not surprising that the Edain...found it difficult to discern whether words and names containing the element el referred to the stars or to the Elves. This is seen in the name Elendil, which was meant to bear the sense "Elf-friend". Properly in Quenya it meant 'a lover or student of the stars'... 'Elf-friend' would have been more correctly represented by Quen(den)dil or Eldandil.") -WJ:410
ELF-LOVER #Eldameldo (pl Eldameldor in WJ:417)
ELF-STONE Elessar (Aragorn's royal name, prob. *Elessard-, cf. STONE. The literal meaning is *Star-stone, not Elf-stone - but the Edain confused elen "star" and elda "elf". Cf. Elendil; see ELF-FRIEND above.) -LotR:395, 897
ELM-TREE alalmë, lalmë; LAND OF ELMS Alalminórë (Warwickshire) -ÁLAM/LT1:249, LÁLAM
EMBER yúla (smouldering wood) -YUL
EMINENT MAN aráto (champion) -Silm:428
EMIT LIGHT faina- PHAY
EMPTY lusta (void), cumna -LUS, KUM
ENCHANT luhta-; ENCHANTMENT lúcë -LUK
ENCLOSURE panda; CIRCULAR ENCLOSURE corin -PAD, KOR
END (noun) metta, mentë, tyel, tyeldë, telu; THE ENDING OF THE WORLD Ambar-metta; END (vb) tele- (intransitive) (finish - so in WJ:411 - LT1:267 gives telu-), tyel- (cease), PUT AN END TO metya- -LotR:1003, MET, LT1:267, WJ:411, KYEL
ENDLESS PERIOD oio -UT:317
ENDURANCE voronwië (lasting quality); ENDURING voronwa (long-lasting) -BORÓN
ENEMY cotumo -KOT
ENGLAND - see FAËRY.
ENOUGH farëa (sufficient) -PHAR
*ENQUIRY centa (as in Essecenta Eldarin wa, probably meaning *"Enquiry into Eldarin Names", as Tolkien described the work as an "Enquiry into the origins of Elvish names for Elves". Another possible translation of centa may be *"essay". However, the only gloss Tolkien gives of centa is "communication", q.v.) -MR:415
ENTRANCE (to harbour) londë (road [in sea], also translated "haven", q.v.)
ENVELOPE (noun) vaiya, vaia (both with alternative, possibly older [MET] forms in w-). -WAY
EXPIRE fírë- (perf. fírië ["has breathed forth"] is attested; *ifírië may be the more usual form) -MR:250
ERRANT ránen -RAN
ESCAPE (vb) usin (glossed "he escapes" in LT:251, but in mature Quenya it would have to mean, if anything, *"I escape" - 1. pers. aorist); ESCAPE (noun) uswë (issue) -LT1:251
*ESSAY see *ENQUIRY.
ESTABLISH tulca- (fix, set up. Note: there is a homonym meaning "firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable".) -LT1:270 cf. TULUK
ETERNAL oira -OY
EVENING andúnë (sunset, west), sinyë -MC:222, THIN
EVER oi, voro, vor (continually) (pref. #oio-, vor-, voro-), EVERWHITE, EVER-SNOW-WHITE Oiolossë (a name for Taniquetil; gen Oiolossëo is attested in Nam, where it has an ablatival meaning); EVERSUMMER Oiolairë, EVERLASTING oia, vorima; EVERLASTING [?AGE] (Tolkien's handwriting was illegible) oirë, oialë; FOR EVER, EVERLASTINGLY oialë (evidently the noun just mentioned used as an adverb), tennoio -OY, UT:458, BOR, LT1:250/273, Nam/RGEO:67, Silm:429, UT:317
EVERY máca -GL:41
EVERYBODY ilquen; EVERYTHING ilqua -WJ:372, IL
EVIL úmëa, #ulca (isolated from henulca, see below); EVILEYED henulca; EVIL-SMELLING saura (þ) (foul, putrid) - in compounds #sauri-, see FOUL. FREE FROM EVIL aman (see BLESSED). -SD:68, 72, UGU, THUS, WJ:399
EXALTED ONES Aratar (pl; sg #Arata). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered "High Ones, The Supreme" -Silm 32/381, WJ:402
EXCEPT hequa (leaving aside, not counting, excluding) -WJ:364, 365
EXCLUDE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, abandon, forsake); EXCLUDING hequa (leaving aside, not counting, except) -WJ:364, 365
EXPAND palu-, palya- (spread, extend, open wide); EXPANSIVE palla (wide) -PAL
EXPIRE fírë- (originally used of "one sighing or releasing a deep breath", but also used of Míriel when she "breathed forth" and died; later used of the death of mortals. Perf. fírië is attested; *ifírië with prefix sundóma is probably also a possible form.) -MR:250
EXTEND palu-, palya- (spread, expand, open wide); EXTENDED taina (lengthened); EXTENSION tailë (lengthening) -PAL, TAY
EYE hen (hend-) (normal pl. hendi as well as the dual form #hendu are attested [isolated from hendumaica, WJ:337]; #hendu would be used of a natural pair of eyes). SHARP-EYE hendumaica, EYES OF HEARTSEASE (a name of the pansy) Helinyetillë -KHEN-D-E, WJ:337, LT1:262
EYRIE sornion (þ) (lit. gen.pl "of eagles"?). -LT1:266. (LT1:251 gives ëaren, but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya [see EAGLE])

<F>

FACE anta -ANA
FADE sinta- (þ) (pa.t. sintanë is given, though it seems perfectly regular), fir- (die), fifíru- ("slowly fade away", frequentative form of fir-; the participal form fifírula is attested); FADING quellë (In the Calendar of Imladris, quellë was a precisely defined period of 54 days in late autumn. Also called lasselanta; see AUTUMN.) -THIN, MC:222/223, LotR:1141
FAËRY Inwilis, Inwinórë (another gloss, "England", was struck out) -LT1:256
FAINT néca (vague, dim to see) -MC:222/223
FAIR vanima (beautiful, proper, right), vanë, melima, linda (beautiful); FAIR FOLK Vanimo (pl. Vanimor is given but seems perfectly regular; the word is said to apply to the "children of the Valar"). FAIR-MINDED faila (generous, just) -BAN, LT1:272, MEL, SLIN, PM:352
FAITHFUL voronda, vórima (steadfast) -UT:317, LT1:250
FALL (vb) lanta- (pres. pl. lantar, pl. past lantaner and part. #lantala are attested); FALL (noun) lanta or #lantë. (The first of these words occurs in the compound lasselanta "leaf-fall, Autumn", while #lantë is isolated from Noldolantë "the Fall of the Noldor". From these examples it appears that a lanta is a physical fall, while a lantë is a moral fall. Perhaps the latter word can also be applied to a military defeat, as in "the fall of Gondolin".) THE FALLEN (= Númenor) Atalantë -DAT/DANT/MC:222, Nam, SD:246, LT1:254, Silm:102/414, TALÁT
FALLOW marya (fawn, pale), malwa (pale) -MAD, SMAL
FAMILIAR moina (dear) -MOY
FAMILY nossë (clan, "house"), nórë, -nor (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, native land) -NÔ, LT1:272
FANE yána (holy place, sanctuary) -YAN
FANG carca (tooth, tusk) -Silm:429, LT2:344
FAR haira, eccaira, avahaira; FAR AWAY (adj) vahaia, FAR AWAY, FAR OFF (adv.) háya; FAR AND WIDE palan; FAR-SEER palantir, "FAR-WANDERER" (the name of a ship) Palarran -KHAYA, SD:247, Silm:435, TIR, UT:460
FAREWELL namárië -Nam
FARMER nandor (perhaps obsolete in mature Quenya, clashing with the name of the Nandor.) -LT1:261
FASTEN tacë (3. pers. sg. aorist), pa.t. tancë. -TAK
FAT tiuca (thick); GROW FAT tiuya- (swell) -TIW
FATE umbar (umbart-) (doom; the form amarto in LT2:348 is no doubt obsolete, but ambar from the same source may be a valid word also in mature Quenya - see DOOM), marto (fortune, lot); manar, mandë (doom, final end, fortune [usually = final bliss]); FATED marta -MBARAT/LotR:1157, MANAD
FATHER atar (pl. atári in Silm, though Etym has atari). FATHER OF ALL Ilúvatar (God) -Silm:428, 229/ATA/LT1:255, Silm:404/UT:446
FATHOM rangwë -RAK
FAWN marya (fallow, pale) -MAD
FAY OF THE COUNTRY nandin (dryad), FAY OF THE MEADS Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (field-spirit) -LT1:261, 262
FËANOR Fëanáro (Spirit of Fire) -Silm:397/435, MR:217
FEAR (noun) caurë; FEAR (vb) - rucin is glossed "I feel fear or horror", constructed with "from" of the object feared (e.g. *rucin Orcollon "I fear Orcs") -LT1:257, WJ:415
FEAST meren (merend-), merendë (festival); FESTIVE merya -MBER
FEATHER quessë -KWES, LotR:1157
FEBRUARY Nénimë (Amillion in LT1:249 is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya.) -LotR:1144
FEEL FEAR OR HORROR rucin (1. pers. aorist), constructed with "from" of the object feared. -WJ:415
FELL (adj) aica (sharp, terrible, dire). -PM:347
FELL (noun) helma (skin) -SKEL
FEMALE (noun) , FEMALE (adj.) inya, inimeitë (pl. probably *inimeisi; cf. HANDED, LEAPING, WINDY) -INI
FENCED FIELD peler, FENCING OR DEFENSIVE HEIGHTS Pelóri -PEL(ES), WJ:403
FESTIVAL asar (Vanyarin athar) (fixed time), meren (merend-), merendë (feast); FESTIVE merya -WJ:399, MBER
FETCH tulta- (send for, summon) -TUL
FEY marta (fated) -MBARAT
FIELD-SPIRIT Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (fay of the meads) -LT1:262
FIERY uruitë, úruva (The stem from which these words are derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it. LT1:248 also gives sára "fiery", but this word is probably obsoleted by sára "bitter" in Etym.) -UR
FIGHT mahta- (wield a weapon) -MAK
FILL quat- (fut #quantuva is attested in enquantuva, "will refill") -WJ:392, Nam; cf. KWAT
FINAL tyelima, métima (ultimate, last); FINAL END mande, manar (fortune, bliss, fate), telda (last) -MC:222 cf. 215, MANAD, WJ:411
FINARFIN Arafinwë -MR:230
FIND #hir- (only fut hiruva is attested), #tuv- (only perf #utúvië is attested [with pronominal endings: utúvienyes "I have found it"]). It is difficult to say what distintion in meaning there may be between these words (if any at all); the verb #tuv- is evidently the same as tuvu- in GL:71, there glossed "receive". -Nam/RGEO:67, LotR:1008
FINE tereva (acute, piercing) -TER
FINE RAIN rossë (dew, spray) -ROS cf. Letters:282
FINGER lepsë; FINGERED #l epta (isolated from raccalepta "clawfingered") -LEP, SD:68, 72
FINGON Findecáno -PM:345
FINISH (vb) tele- (intransitive) (end) (so in WJ:411 - LT1:267 gives telu-) telya- (transitive) (wind up, conclude). Cf. also telma "conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair", "often applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle." FINISH (noun) telu -WJ:411, LT1:267
FINROD Findaráto -Silm:428/PM:346
FIRE úr (the stem from which this word is derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it. But a more usual word for "fire" is apparently nár, nárë, which appear [with the masculine ending -o] in the following names:) SPIRIT OF FIRE Fëanáro (Fëanor), FELL FIRE Aicanáro (Sharp Flame, Aegnor) (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár). LT1:265 has "fire", poetic form sai, also sairin "fiery"; cf. also Sáya "the fire-fay" in GL:66. LT:271 has the following "fire"-words: FIRE uru, FIERY uruvoitë, ON FIRE urwa, LIKE FIRE urúva. Cf. also FIREWOOD turu (but the word was also used of wood in general). BOWL OF FIRE tanyasalpë (evindently #tanya "fire" + #salpë "bowl") -UR, Silm:397, MR:217, LT1:265, 270, 271, 292
FIRM tulca (strong, immovable, steadfast; Note: there is a homonym meaning "fix, set up, establish"), tulunca (steady), sanda (true, abiding), tanca (fixed, sure) -TULUK, LT1:270, STAN, TAK
FIRST minya (cf. Minyar "Firsts", the first clan among the Elves), inga, *yesta; FIRSTBORN (= the Elves) Minnónar. (*Yesta is corrected from the actual reading esta; see BEGINNING. For FIRSTBORN, Etym has Estanessi, which would similarly become *Yestanessi, but this word is propably obsoleted by the later [TLT] form Minnónar. Writers should use the latter word.) FIRST-BEGOTTEN Minyon (a personal name. The element yon, translated "begotten", may be a reduced form of yondo "son". Alternatively, and perhaps more likely, Minyon may be the adjective minya "first" turned into a masculine name by adding the masculine ending -on. In that case, the literal meaning is simply *"First One". But it is possible that on is actually derived from the stem ONO "beget", and that "First-begotten" really is the literal meaning.) -MIN/Silm:434/WJ:420, ING, ESE, WJ:403
FISH lingwë (perhaps the general word, as opposed to hala), SMALL FISH hala, "FISH-WATCHER" (i.e., kingsfisher, a bird) halatir (halatirn-) or halatirno -LIW, SKAL2, TIR
FIST quárë (often used to mean "hand"). (In compounds -quar: Telperinquar = Sindarin Celebrimbor, "Silver-Fist, Hand of Silver". The first version of the stem KWAR yielded quár pl. quari.) -KWAR, Silm:429/387
FIT mára (useful, good) -MAG
FIVE lempë -LEP/GL:53
FIX panya- (set), tulca- (establish, set up. Note: there is a homonym meaning "firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable"); FIXED tanca (sure, firm); BE FIXED mar- (abide, be settled). FIXED TIME asar (-th-, Vanyarin athar) (festival), FIXED IDEA see IDEA -PAN, LT1:270 cf. TULUK, TAK, UT:317, WJ:399
FLAG ambal (shaped stone) -MBAL
FLAME nár, nárë, velca; SHARP-FLAME Aicanáro (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár), (Aegnor, Fell Fire), RED FLAME rúnya; HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), FLAME-COLOURED culina, culda (golden-red) -NAR1, LT1:260, Silm:437, MR:198, KUL
FLAT lára -DAL
FLEECE -LT1:249
FLESH hrávë, sarco; FLESHY sarqua -MR:349, LT2:347
FLINTHEARTED sincahonda -LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72
?FLINTSTONE #sinca (isolated from sincahonda "flinthearted") -LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72
FLOAT lutu- (LT1:273 has wili- "sail, float, fly", but see FLY.) -LT1:249
FLOOD (tide), celumë (stream, flow, flowing), ulundë, lúto; FLOODING (adj) úlëa (flowing, pouring) -ULU, KEL/MC:223, LT1:249
FLOOR talan (pl talami) (ground); PAVED FLOOR paca (court) -TAL, GL:63
FLOUR porë (meal) -POR
FLOURISH (noun) rincë (quick shake) -RIK
FLOW (vb) sir-, lutta-, lutu-; FLOW, FLOWING (noun) celumë (stream, flood); FLOWING (adj) úlëa (flooding, pouring), sírima (liquid). -SIR, LT1:249, KEL/MC:223, LT1:265
FLOWER (large and single) lótë (often -lot in compounds). (The word lótë is usually applied to a large, single flower. From *ambalotsë "uprising-flower" [q.v.] #lotsë can be isolated; this may be the more general word for "flower".) FLOWER OF THE WEST (a floral design) Númellóte. Cf. also indil, "lily, or other large single flower". PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (corrected from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout) -LOT(H), LT1:259, WJ:318, UT:227, 458, WJ:399, LT:258
FLUTE simpa, simpina (pipe); FLUTER timpinen -LT1:266, 268
FLUTTERING TO AND FRO wilwa -MC:223
FLY wilin ("I fly", 1. pers. aorist), pa.t. willë (cf. wili- "sail, float, fly" in LT1:273). FLY OR STREAM IN THE WIND hlapu- (part. hlápula is attested), FLYING rimpa (rushing); SEND FLYING horta- -WIL, MC:223, RIP, KHOR
FOAM (vb) falasta- (part. falastala is attested); FOAM (noun) fallë, winga (spray), wingë (wingi-) (crest [of wave], spindrift). -MC:222/223, PHAL, WIG, LT1:273
FOG hísë (mist. Note: a homonym means "dusk"), hiswë, hui (murk, dark, night) -KHIS, LT1:253
FOIL (plant) asëa (þ) -LotR:899
FOLIAGE olassië (collection of leaves) -Letters:282
FOLK hos -LT2:340
FOLLOW hilya- FOLLOWER neuro; FOLLOWERS (an Elvish name of Men) Hildor, Hildi (unattested sg #Hildo; dative pl hildin is attested; cf also Hildinyar "my heirs" in Aragorn's oath) -KHIL/Silm:116/122/403, FS/WJ:387, LotR:1003, 1004
FOOD (cooked) apsa -AP
FOOT tál (tal-) (These forms probably obsolete tala pl talwi in LT2:347.) FOOTPRINT runya (slot) -TAL, RUN
FOR an (Nam: an sí...Varda...máryat...ortanë, "for now...Varda...has uplifted her hands". Note: an is also glossed "to, till".) English "for" meaning "for the benefit of" will often be rendered by the dative ending -n (pl -in); e.g. nin "for me". -Nam
FORBID váquet- (refuse, say no) (1. pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given) avaquet- (refuse) (pa.t. is no doubt *avaquentë; cf. quet- under SAY) -WJ:370, KWET
#FORD tarna (This gloss is isolated from Taruktarna "Oxford", q.v. Tolkien glossed tarna as "crossing, passage") -LT1:347
?FOREIGN (Tolkien's handwriting was illegible) ettelen -ET
FORESIGHT *apacen (lit. *"after-sight", a vision of something that will come after the present. In MR:216, apacenyë is translated "foresight"; yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates that it is actually the pl. form of an adjective #apacenya "of foresight". The noun "foresight" is almost certainly *apacen; cf. tercen "insight".) -MR:216
FOREST taurë ([great] wood) (pl. tauri is attested), tauno, málos (the two latter may not be valid words in mature Quenya) -TAWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf 215, LT2:342, LT1:267
FORGE - LT1:250 gives tamin, but this word is probably obsoleted by tamin "I tap" in Etym.
FORM car- (make, q.v.) -WJ:391
FORMER, THE yara (that); FORMER DAYS yárë; FORMER TIMES yalúmë; FORMERLY (ago), BELONGING TO OR DESCENDING FROM FORMER TIMES yára (ancient) -YA
FORSAKE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon); FORSAKEN ELVES see EGLATH. ONE LOST OR FORSAKEN BY FRIENDS hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (waif, outcast, outlaw) -WJ:365
FORT arta (fortress) (Note: arta also means "across, athwart") -GARAT (see 3AR)
FORTH et- (prefix) (out) -ET
FORTRESS arta (fort) (Note: arta also means "across, athwart") -GARAT (see 3AR)
FORTUNE (good) alma (weal, wealth); mandë, manar (final end, doom, fate); heren (governance, what is in store for one or what one has in store); marto (fate, lot); FORTUNATE herenya (wealthy, blessed, rich) -GALA, MAN/MANAD, KHER, LT2:348
FOUL saura (þ) (evil-smelling, putrid); in compounds sauri- as in FOULBELLIED sauricumba -THUS, SD:68, 72
FOUNDATION talma (base, root) -TAL
FOUNTAIN ehtelë (issue of water, spring).The actual readng in LT1 and LT2 is ektelë, but Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. The new form of the word is attested in Silm. LT also gives the form kektelë, that would likewise become *cehtelë.) -LT1:257, LT2:338
FOUR canta, (prefix:) can- -KANÁT
FOX rusco -PM:353
FREE mirima (of a person, as opposed to the following:) latin, latina (open, cleared [of land]). (A word fairë "free" is mentioned in LT1:250, but may be obsolete: several other meanings are attributed to this word in later writings [see DEATH, PHANTOM, RADIANCE]. However, fairië "freedom" does not clash with later words.) FREE FROM EVIL aman (see BLESSED) -LAT, MIS, WJ:399
FREEZE niquë- ("it is cold, it freezes"). LT1:254 gives hilcin "it freezes", but in mature Quenya this will have to mean, if anything, "I freeze" (1. pers. aorist). -WJ:417, LT1:254
FREQUENT rimba -RIM
FRESH venya, wenya (yellow-green, green); FRESHNESS vén, wén (youth, greenness) -GWEN
FRESHLET celussë (water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring) -UT:426
FRIEND málo, meldo (pl meldor is attested), nildo (m.), nildë (f.), sermo, seron (m.), sermë (f.), -ser (final element in compounds), -(n)dil (final element in compounds, e.g. Elendil, Anardil, Valandil - sometimes translated "lover" rather than "friend". When the first part of the compound ends in l, n, or r, the n of -ndil is left out). FRIENDLY nilda (lovely), FRIENDSHIP nilmë -MEL, WJ:412, NIL, SER, Letters:386
FROM ho - English "from" will often be rendered by the ablative case, endings -llo, pl -llon or -llor, dual -lto, e.g. Eärello *"from the Sea". -3O, LotR:1003
FROST nixë, ringwë (rime), FROST-PATTERNS niquis, niquessë (the latter by association with quessë "feather") -WJ:417, LT1:265
FROZEN halcin -LT1:254
FRUIT yávë (so in Etym and Silm:439; LT1:273 has yáva). BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *"I bear fruit", stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1. person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) -YAB, LT1:273
FULL quanta; FULLY aqua (completely, altogether, wholly); FULL STOP (in Tengwar punctuation - probably the symbol :) pusta (stop) -KWAT, WJ:392, PUS
FUNGUS hwan (pl hwandi) (sponge) -SWAD

<G>

GALADRIEL Altáriel (Altariell-; gen. Altariello is attested. Altáriel is the form used in Noldorin Quenya, Galadriel's own mother-tongue; the Telerin form is Alatáriel [UT:266]. According to PM:347 [that gives Altariel with no long á] the true Quenya equivalent of the Telerin form would have been Ñaltariel, but this form was apparently not used.) -Silm:433, RGEO:66
GAME tyalië (sport, play) -TYAL/LT1:260
GANDALF Olórin (his name in Valinor, derived from a stem meaning "dream" - not an actual translation of "Gandalf", meaning "Elf of the Wand", a name he was given by people who did not know that he was actually a Maia.) -LotR:391, UT:396 cf. 391
GAOL #mando (isolated from Angamando "Iron-Gaol"; mando is also defined as "safe keeping"). -MR:350
GAP fásë (gulf) -GL:36
GARLAND ría (wreathe); MAIDEN CROWNED WITH A FESTIVAL GARLAND riellë -PM:347
GASH cirissë (slash), hyatsë (cleft) -KIRIS, SYAD
GATE ando; GREAT GATE andon (pl andondi). (LT1:264 has osto "the gates of the Sun" and Ostor "East", but in mature Quenya osto means "town".) -AD, LotR:1157, LT1:264
GATHER hosta- (collect, assemble); GATHERING (of three or more coming from different directions) yomenië (meeting) -MC:223, WJ:407
GENEROUS faila (fair-minded, just) -PM:352
GENTLE moica (soft), GENTLE BREEZE vílë -GL:58, LT1:273
GET LOW (of the Sun) númeta-, númenda- -LT1:263
GERM erdë (seed. Note: a homonym means "person".) -ERÉD
GESTURE-CODE hwermë -WJ:395
GIANT norsa (þ) (see also MONSTER) -NOROTH
GIFT anna; GIVE anta- (present); GIVER antë (f), anto (m) (the latter word from Etym is probably obsoleted by anto "mouth" in LotR:1157 - an alternative word for "[male] giver" might be *antaro). LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor (haplology of *Annandor), DEAR GIFT (the meaning of Melian's name) Melyanna -ANA, LotR:1157, Silm:313, 434
GIMILZÔR Telemnar -UT:223
GIMLET teret (auger) -LT1:255
GIRDLE #lesta (isolated from #Lestanórë; see DORIATH. #Lesta is the cognate of Sindarin lest as in Lest [or List] Melian "the Girdle of Melian" [WJ:228]. Note: #lesta also means "measure".) -WJ:369, Silm:390
GIRL wen (pl. wendi) (maid) -LT1:271
GIVE anta- -ANA
GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nost a- is glossed "beget") -LT1:272
GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This word encompasses both "after-names" and "mother-names".) -MR:217
GLAMHOTH Sancossi (see GOBLIN) -LT2:341
GLASS hyellë; LITTLE GLASS lipil. Cf. also vírin, "a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon" -KHYEL, LT1:258, LT2:339
GLAURUNG see GLORUND
GLEAM (WHITE) ilca- (part. ilcala is attested) -MC:223
GLINT (vb) tinë (pres 3. pers sg); GLINT (noun) tindë, wintil; GLINTING tinda (silver) -TIN, LT1:261
GLITTER mirilya-; GLITTERING rilya (brilliance); GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; GLITTERING REFLECTION nalta (radiance - alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -MBIRIL, RIL, PM:347
GLOBE coron; GLOBED corna (round) -KOR
GLOOM ungwë, lumbë (shadow); GLOOMY morna (black, dark, sombre), huinë (darkness, shadow), lómë (night, twilight, darkness, dusk), yaru; CHILD OF GLOOM lómëar (probably not a valid word in mature Quenya) -UÑG, LUM, GL:37, LT1:255, Silm:431
GLORIOUS alcarinqua (radiant) (The shorter form alcarin is attested as a title of king Atanatar II. Cf. also Alcarinquë, a name of Jupiter.) -AKLA-R-, WJ:412, RGEO:73/LotR:1075, Silm:55
GLORUND, GLORUNN Laurundo, Undolaurë (Tolkien later changed Glorund to Glaurung. Read *Laurungo, *Ungolaurë in Quenya?) -LT2:341
GLORY alcar, alcarë (splendour, brilliance) -AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/ UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427
GNOME (only = wise one, Noldo) Noldo (spelt Ngoldo in tengwar writing, reflecting the earlier pronounciation); pl. Noldor is attested. GNOMISH (general adjective:) Noldorinwa, (Gnomish language:) Noldorin, GNOME-LAND Noldomar -LT1:262, Silm:61, LotR:1157
GO lelya- or linna- (pa.t. lendë in both cases) (proceed, travel); vanya- (pa.t. vannë) (depart, disappear), GO ROUND pel- (revolve, return); GO ATHWART tara- (cross); GO AWAY auta- (leave, pass); pa.t. oantë, oantië (in the physical sense "went away [to another place]", vánë ("the most frequently used past [tense]" - less "physical" than oantë, rather meaning to be lost or to disappear), also anwë (this pa.t. was "only found in archaic language"), perf. avánië (pl avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. GONE vanwa (departed, vanished, dead, lost, past and over, no longer to be had) BE GONE! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) -WJ:363, LED, PEL, LT2:347, WAN, Nam, WJ:364, 366
GOAT - she-goat: nyéni -LT1:262
GOBLET súlo, fion -SUG (see SUK), LT1:253
GOBLIN (Orc) urco (pl urqui) or orco (pl. orqui or orcor); THE GOBLINS Sancossi (sancë "hateful" + hossi "armies", said to be the Quenya equivalent of Sindarin Glamhoth) -ÓROK, LT2:202/MR:74/WJ:390, LT2:341
GOD Eru ("The One, He that is Alone", a proper name that can hardly be used as a common noun meaning "god" in general. Eru obsoletes Enu in LT2:343), Ilúvatar "Father of All", Ainatar *"Holy-Father" (titles of God), PAGAN GOD ainu, PAGAN GODDESS aini (angelic spirit, holy one). (As Christopher Tolkien notes, the Ainur are of course not "pagan" to the people of Middle-earth. In Etym and Silm, Ainu/Aini is capitalized.) -Silm:15/396/431, LT1:248 cf. AYAN and Silm:426
GOLD (the metal) malta (so in LotR - Etym has malda [stem SMAL], but cf. smalta mentioned under LAWAR); GOLD laurë (= "not the metal but the colour, what we should call golden light", Letters:308, "of light and colour, not of the metal", Silm:433, "not a metallic word. It was applied to those things which we often call 'golden' though they do not much resemble metallic gold: golden light, especially sunlight", RGEO:70, "a word for golden light or colour, never used for the metal", PM:353, "light of the golden Tree Laurelin", LR:368; a "mystic name" of gold, LT1:255 [no doubt an obsolete notion]; in LT1:258 and LT2:341 the gloss is simply "gold".) RED GOLD +cullo (obsoleting culu in LT2:341? In LT1:255 culu is said to be a poetic word for "gold", but also used mythically as a name of all red and yellow metals), GOLDEN laurëa (pl laurië is attested; LT1:258 has laurina), GOLDEN-RED culda, culina (flame-coloured); (cf. Silm. Appendix: "cul- 'golden-red' in Culúrien") -LotR:1157/SMAL, Letters:308/RGEO:70/LAWAR, KUL, RGEO:70/Nam, Silm:429
GONDOLIN Ondolindë ("Stone Song", so in Silm:149, 415; LT1:254 gives Ondolinda, changed from Ondolin) -LT1:254
GONE vanwa (departed, lost, past) -WAN, Nam
GONG tombo -LT1:269
GOOD (of things) mára (fit , useful), GOOD (morally good) manë; GOODBYE mára mesta -MAG (see MA3), LT1:260, Arct
GOODS armar (sg #arma if there is a sg) -3AR
GOOSE ván, wán (pl. váni is given, but seems perfectly regular) -WA-N-
GORE nasta (spearhead, point, triangle), nehtë (spearhead, narrow promontory, wedge), mear (from a root possibly meaning "ooze") -SNAS, UT:282, LT1:260
GORGE cilya (pass between hills, cleft) (so in Etym, but cf. #cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] - though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) -KIL
GORTHAUR Sauron (þ) -Silm:418 cf. THUS
GOTHMOG Cosomot (prob. *Cosomoc-, cf the alternative form Cosomoco) -LT1:258
GOVERN turin ("I...govern", 1. pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (wield, control). LT1:273 has vard- "rule, govern", but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya. -TUR
GOVERNANCE heren (fortune) -KHER
GOVERNOR cáno (see COMMANDER), (governor, chieftain, commander) -PM:345
GRADE #tyellë (only pl tyeller is attested - note irregular plural instead of the expected form **tyelli) -LotR:1153
GRAMMAR tengwesta (system or code of signs) -TEK cf. WJ:394
GRANDCHILD indyo (descendant) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya [see MIDDLE]. The Noldor likely used the form *inyo.) -ÑGYO(N)
GRANT lav- (yield, allow) -DAB
GRASP mapa- (seize) This word was struck out in one of Tolkien's earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. -MAP, LT2:339
GRASS salquë, (stiff and dry:) sara (þ) (bent) -SALAK, STAR
GREAT velicë (possibly obsolete in mature Quenya: In LT1:254 velicë is said to correspond to Gnomish beleg, but according to LR:352 the stem from which beleg is derived is "not found in Q[uenya]"). GREAT (in size) alta (large) (The form alat- is used in compounds when the next word has an initial vowel, as in Alatairë. Tolkien's gloss of alta, alat- was actually illegible, and I give the root meaning of the stem ÁLAT. The meaning of the Quenya word cannot differ too widely from it, for Alatairë is said to correspond to "Noldorin" Belegoer [mature Sindarin Belegaer], The Great Sea.) -LT1:254, ÁLAT cf. BEL, cf. Silm:428
GREAT BEAR see SICKLE OF THE VALAR.
GREAT LONGING mavoinë -LT2:345
GREAT NUMBER - in a very great number: úvëa (abundance) -UB
GREAT QUANTITY úvë (abundance) -UB
GREAT WOOD taurë (forest) -TAWAR
GREED milmë; GREEDY milca -MIL-IK
GREEN laiqu a (so in Etym - Letters:282 has laica, meaning something wholly different ["keen, piercing"] in LT2:337), ezel, ezella (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya), GREEN-ELVES Laiquendi (probably a haplology of *Laiquaquendi, this word was not much used according to WJ), wenya (yellow-green, fresh); GREENNESS wén, laiquassë (freshness, youth) -LÁYAK/LT1:267, WJ:399, GWEN, WJ:385, LT1:267
GREY #mista (isolated from lassemista "leaf-grey"), hiswa, sinda (þ) (WJ has sindë "pale or silvery grey", but sinda is given in Silm:438 and the words sindanoriello "from a grey land", Sindacollo "Grey-cloak" and Sindar "Grey-Elves, *Grey Ones" all point to sinda as the Quenya word for "grey".) GREY-ELVES Sindar (þ) (sg. Sinda), less commonly Sindeldi (sg Sindel); GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (þ) (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo); GREY-ELVEN sindarinwa (adj), Sindarin (= Grey-Elven language) (þ) -LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, KHIS, LotR:1171, Silm:438, THIN/WJ:384, Nam, Silm:419, WJ:384, LotR:1157, 1161
GRIEF nyérë (sorrow). Pl. probably *nyérer not *nyéri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver. The noun nyérë points to a verbal stem *nyer- "grieve". -GL:60/LT1:261
GROT (small) rotto (tunnel) -PM:365
GROUND talan (pl talami) (floor) -TALAM
GROW FAT tiuya- -TIW
GROWL (vb) yarra- (snarl), (of dogs:) núru- (grumble); GROWL (noun) nur (complaint) -MC:223, LT1:263
GRUMBLE (vb) nurru- (murmur), núru- (growl [of dogs]). (These may simply be two forms of the same word. Nurru- is by far the later [TLT] form.) GRUMBLING (adj) nurrua -MC:223, LT1:263
GUARD - use the word glossed "watch, heed", q.v. Cf. LT1:258. For "guard" as a noun, #tirno "watcher" may be isolated from halatirno (see FISHWATCHER)
GUESS (vb) intya-; GUESS (noun) intya (supposition, idea)
GULF yáwë (cleft, ravine), fásë (gap) -YAG, GL:36
GULL maiwë -MIW
GYRATE hwinya- (eddy, swirl) -SWIN

<H>

HABIT haimë -KHIM
HABITATION imbar (Imbar was an Elvish name of the Earth as the prinicipal part of Arda; the form Ambar may be more usual and is found in LotR.) -MR:337, WJ:419, 402, LotR:1003
HAIL aiya (so in LotR; LT1:248 has áyë) -LotR:747, 950 cf. Letters:385
HAIR loxë; TANGLED HAIR fassë; LOCK OF HAIR findë (defined as "a tress or plait of hair" in PM:345; LT2:341 has findl, an impossible form in mature Quenya), HEAD OF HAIR, A PERSON'S HAIR AS A WHOLE findessë -LOKH, PHAS, SPIN, PM:345
HALF-ELVEN (noun, pl) Pereldar (Sindarin Peredhil, LotR:1071) -Letters:386
HALL #mardë (isolated from oromardi "lofty halls, high-halls"); ROCKHEWN HALL hróta- (artificial cave, rockhewn hall) -Nam/RGEO:66, PM:365
HALLOW aitita- -Vinyar Tengwar #32 p. 7
HALVE perya- (devide in middle) (After perya, a word perina is mentioned - it is undefined but must be the corresponding past participle, *"halved, divided in middle".) -PER
HAMMER (vb) namba-; HAMMER (noun) namba -NDAM
HAMS hacca (buttocks) -GL:47
HAND (pl. allative mannar "into...hands" is attested; the long á evidently becomes short a before a consonant cluster), quárë (the latter is properly "fist", but was often used for "hand" - see FIST); HOLLOW OF HAND cambë; HAVING HANDS mavoitë; HANDY, HANDED maitë (skilled) (pl. maisi. When maitë is the final element of names, it is translated "handed" instead of "handy", e.g. Angamaitë "Iron-handed", morimaitë "blackhanded") -MA3/LT2:339, FS, KWAR/Silm:429, KAB, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, UT:460
HANDLE mahta- -MA3
HANG linga- (dangle) -LING
HAPPEN - LT2:348 gives mart- "it happens" (impersonal). Perhaps read *marta- in mature Quenya, though that would clash with marta "fey, fated".
HAPPY valin (LT1:272 also gives valimo, but adjectives ending in -o do not occur in mature Quenya), HAPPINESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (blessedness) -LT1:272
HARBOUR hópa (haven, bay - obsoleting cópa, cópas in LT1:257); HARBOURAGE hopassë -KHOP
HARD nauca (ill-shapen, twisted, *small - see SMALL.) -WJ:413
HARE lapattë -GL:52
HARP (vb) nanda-; HARP (noun) nandë; LITTLE HARP nandellë; HARPING (noun, not adjectival participle) nandelë; HARPER nandaro, HARP-PLAYER tyalangan. (In Etym, all but the last of these words are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) HARP-PLAYING salmë. -NGAN, TYAL; cf. LotR:1157, LT1:265
HARSH naraca (rending, violent) -NÁRAK
HARVEST yávië (autumn) - evidently obsoleting yávan in LT1:273. In the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 52 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Note: yávië probably refers to harvest time only, not "harvest" in the sense "harvested products", though it is derived from a stem meaning "fruit". -LotR:1142, 1145
HASP tangwa (clasp) -TAK
HASTE ormë (wrath, violence, rushing); HASTY orna, tyelca (agile) -GOR, KHOR, PM:353
HAT táta -GL:71
HATE (vb) tevë- (aorist form); LT1:258 has mokir "I hate", read *mocin in mature Quenya? HATEFUL sancë; HATRED tevië, tevin -LT1:268, LT2:341
HAVE - see POSSESS. Cf also NO LONGER TO BE HAD vanwa (gone, dead, departed, lost, past, vanished) -WJ:366
HAVEN hópa (harbour, bay) londë (as in Alqualondë "Haven of the Swans", UT:417 - but elsewhere londë is glossed "entrance to harbour, road in sea") -KHOP
?HAWK fion (pl fioni, fiondi) (Tolkien's gloss was "not certainly legible; the likeliest interpretation would be 'haste', but 'hawk' is a possibility." The translation "haste" is out of the question, as this word would have no plural form. Besides, a quite different word for "haste" [ormë] is known.) -PHI
HE pronominal ending -ro + lengthening of the previous vowel, e.g. antaváro he will give (so in LR:63, probably *antuváro in mature Quenya). There is also the ending -s, that covers the entire 3. person sg: "he, she, it". It is uncertain what the independent word for "he, even he" might be. LR:63 has e, a word that appears in Sindarin as well (SD:129). Does it also cover "she, it"? Cf. HIM, HIS.
HEAD cár (cas-), nóla (round head, knoll); HEAD OF HAIR findessë (see HAIR). -KAS, NDOL, PM:345
HEAL #envinyata- (isolated from the past participle envinyanta "healed". The literal meanings are *"renew" and "renewed", cf. Aragorn's title Envinyatar "Renewer" [q.v.]) -MR:405
HEAR #hlar- (only fut hlaruva is attested) -MC:222
HEARING (adj) lasta (listening) -LAS2
HEART hón (physical heart), órë (inner mind - concerning this word, see SPIRIT) (Note: a homonym means "rising"), indo (mind, mood), elwen; -HEARTED #honda (isolated from sincahonda "flinthearted"). EYES OF HEARTSEASE (a name of the pansy) Helinyetillë HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), -KHÔ-N-, LotR:1157, ID, LT1:255, LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72, LT1:262, MR:198
HEAT úrë (The stem from which this word must be derived was struck out in Etym, but the word occurs in LotR itself, indicating that Tolkien restored the stem in question.) SMOULDERING HEAT, RED [?HEAT] (Tolkies handwriting was illegible) yulmë (Note: a homonym means "drinking, carousal") -LotR:1157 cf. UR; YUL
HEAVE #amorta- (only part. amortala is attested), HEAVE (of large and heavy things:) rúma- (shift, move) (part. rúmala is attested) -MC:222 cf. 215, MC:223, 222
HEAVENS, THE menel (a sg word, "heaven", as opposed to its English translation), ilwë (sky). -Silm:434/MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:255
HEAVY lunga -LUG
HEDGE (jagged hedge of spikes) caraxë -KARAK
HEED tirin ("I watch", *"I heed", 1. pers. aorist), pa.t. tirnë; fut. tiruva "shall heed" is attested; also cim-. -MC:222 cf. 214, TIR, GL:39
HEIGHT #tárië (only allative tárienna "to the height" is attested) -LotR:989 cf. Letters:308
HEIR aryon (also haryon is glossed as "heir", but this gloss is paranthetic and "prince" is given as the primary meaning. Hildinyar is translated "my heirs" in Aragorn's oath; it appears that this is actually a form of hildo "follower".) -GAR (see 3AR), LotR:1003, 1004
HELL Angamando ("Iron-prison", Morgoth's dungeon-fortress in the First Age. This is the form given in MR; Etym has Angamanda, LT1:249/252 has Angamandu/Angamandi or Eremandu "Hells of Iron". In LT1:259, Mandos is glossed "hell", but Mandos was simply the halls of the dead and not a place of torture. GL:51 also has fatanyu.) -MR:350, MBAD
HELMET cassa -KAS
HEM ríma (edge, border), HEM OF ROBE lappa -RÎ, GL:52
HER 1. (object form of she) - the ending -s (also covering "it, *him". Utúvienyes [LotR:1008] is translated "I have found it", but it could probably mean "I have found her/him" as well.) Case endings may be attached to se, e.g. dative *sen "for her". 2. HER (genitive, = of her) -rya (possessive suffix, e.g. aratarya "her sublimity" [WJ:369], máryat "her hands" [Nam].) This ending covers the entire 3. pers sg and also means "his" and *"its".) -WJ:369
HERO callo (noble man). LT1:268 also has mordo "warrior, hero", but in mature Quenya mordo means "obscurity, shadow, stain". -KAL
HEW *pelehta- (corrected from the actual reading pelekta-, since Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) -LT2:346
HIDE #nurta- (verbal stem isolated from the verbal noun nurtalë "hiding" in Silm:120), #lom- (LT1:255 gives lomir "I hide"; this would become *lomin in mature Quenya), moru- -LT1:261
HIDING nurtalë -Silm:120
HIDDEN muina (secret), halda (veiled, shadowed, shady), foina, furin/hurin (concealed); DARK OR HIDDEN tumna (low-lying, low, profound, deep) -MUY, SKAL, LT2:340, LT1:271
HIDEOUS CREATURE ulundo (deformed creature, monster) -ÚLUG
HIGH tára (lofty, tall), oro- (in compounds: oromardi "high-halls"). The element #Ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean "high (i.e., noble, revered)". Cf. also tar- in tarquesta "high speech". -WJ:417, Nam/RGEO:66, WJ:416, TÂ
HIGH ELVES Tarquendi; HIGH-ELVES Tareldar -TA, MC:349
HIGH ONES Aratar (sg #Arata, cf. PM:363). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered "The Supreme, Exalted Ones". -Silm 32/381, WJ:402
HIGH SPEECH (= Quenya) Tarquesta -TÂ
HILL #ambo (only allative pl. ambonnar is attested); tundo (mound), oro; ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield) -HILL-SIDE amban (upward slope) (probably obsoleting amun(d) in LT2:335) -MC:222, LT1:269, TUN, LT1:256, AM
HIM - probably the ending -s (also covering "it, *her". Utúvienyes [LotR:1008] is translated "I have found it", but it could probably mean "I have found him/her" as well.) Case endings may be attached to so, e.g. dative *son "for him"
HINDMOST tella (last); THE HINDMOST Teleri (the Last-comers) -TELES, Silm:421
HIS -rya (possessive suffix, e.g. coarya his house. This ending covers the entire 3. pers sg and also means "her" and *"its".) -WJ:369
HISTORY nyárë (tale, saga), quenta, quentalë (account), lúmequentalë, lúmequenta (chronological account); HISTORICAL lúmequentalëa -NAR2 , KWET, LU
HIVE nierwes -LT1:262
HOARD foa (treasure) -LT2:340
HOLE latta (pit - Note: a homonym means "strap"), assa (perforation, opening, mouth) -DAT, GAS
HOLLOW (noun) unquë, HOLLOW (adj) unqua, ronta, rotwa; HOLLOW OUT unca--UNUK, LotR:1157, LT2:347
HOLLOWBOLD Návarot (Nogrod, Novrod) -WJ:389
HOLLY ercassë (probably obsoleting piosenna in LT2:347) -ERÉK
HOLY aina, airë; HOLY ONE ainu (m.), aini (f.) (angelic spirit, god); HOLY PLACE yána (fane, sanctuary) -AYAN/WJ:399, Nam, YAN
HOLYDAY meryalë -MBER
HOME már (also used of the "home" or native land of peoples). Short form mar as the final element of compounds: Eldamar "Elvenhome"; the vowel is also short in Mar-nu-falmar, "the Land [lit. Home] under the Waves". -Silm:408, 428
HOMESTEAD osta -LT2:336
HONEY lis (liss-) (LT1:262 gives nektë, read *nehtë in mature Quenya.) HONEY-BEE nier, nion -LIS, LT1:262/GL:60
HOOD telmë (covering) -TEL
HOOK ampa, atsa (claw, catch); HOOKED rempa (crooked) -LotR:1157, GAT, REP
HOPE (noun) estel -WJ:318 (where it is stated that this word was used in Quenya as well as in Sindarin. Here the word is defined as "'hope', sc. a temper of mind, steady, fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose". In MR:320, estel is translated "trust".)
HORDE horma (host) -LT2:341
HORN rassë ("especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains". Cf. Rasmund "horned bull" in Letters:423 [this may not be pure Quenya] and Arfanyaras, Arfanyarassë "high white-shining peak [*horn]", alternative name of Taniquetil), romba (so in Etym and one place in WJ [p. 400: romba = "horn, trumpet"] but on p. 368 róma is used for "horn", though this is glossed "trumpet-sound" in Etym), HORN OF ULMO hyalma (shell, conch), tildë (point), (horn of animal:) tarca (probably obsoleting taru in LT2); HORNED tarucca (perhaps obsoleted together with taru), THE HORNED Tilion (a name of the Moon) -RAS, WJ:403/416, ROM/WJ:401 contrast 368, SYAL, TIL, TARÁK, LT2:337,347, Silm:438
HORROR - rucin is glossed "I feel fear or horror" (1. pers. aorist), constructed with "from" of the object feared (e.g. *rucin Orcollon "I fear Orcs") -WJ:415
HORSE rocco (defined as "swift horse for riding" in Letters:382), mairo; HORSEMAN roquen (rider, knight) -ROK/Letters:282, 382, GL:56, WJ:372/UT:282
HOST rimbë (crowd), horma (horde) -RIM/Letters:178, 382, LT2:341
HOSTILE cotya -KOT
HOT saiwa; BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin is also a name of the Sun) -LT1:248/265, LT1:271
HOUND huan (hún-); HOUND OF CHASE ronyo -KHUG (see KHUGAN), ROY
HOUR lúmë (so translated in LotR; in Etym the gloss is simply "time". Allative lúmenna is attested. Note: lúmë also means "darkness".) -LU, LotR:94, WJ:367
HOUSE coa (prob. the most neutral word), opelë (walled house), car (card-) (building), nossë (clan, family, kin, people) (LT2:336 gives indo "house" and os(t) "house and cottage"; these words are probably obsolete - in mature Quenya indo means "heart", while osto means "city". Also indor "master of house" must be obsolete.) LIGHT OF THE HOUSE coacalina (a metaphor for the soul [fëa] dwelling inside the body [hroa]) -WJ:369/MR:250, PEL(ES), KAR, NÔ/LT1:250, 343, MR:250
HOW manen -PM:395
HUMAN firya (lit. *"mortal"; nominal pl. Firyar is attested) -PHIR, WJ:219
HUMBLED nucumna -SD:246
HUMP tumpo; HUMPBACK cauco, HUMPED cauca (bent, crooked) -TUMPU, LT1:257
HUNT (noun), HUNTING raimë (No verb "to hunt" is given in Etym, but roita- "pursue" is derived from the same stem and can probably be translated *"hunt" as well. LT1:260 has rauta- "hunt".) -ROY1
HUSBAND verno; HUSBAND AND WIFE veru (married pair) -BES
HUSH quildë (rest, quiet) -GL:23

<I>

I (1. pers. sg) inyë (independent pronoun, used for emphasis: *"even I"), -n or -nyë (endings used on verbs, e.g. ávan, ványë "I [-n/-nyë] will not", maruvan "I [-n] will abide"). The long form -nye must be used if another pronominal ending is to be added after it: utúvienyes, "I [-nye-] have found it [-s]". In the "Arctic" sentence, ni is translated "I"; this may be a shorter (non-emphatic?) form of inyë. The dative pronoun nin "for me" is transparently ni + the dative ending -n; other case endings may also be added to ni. -LR:61, WJ:371, LotR:1008/1003, Arct
ICE helcë; ICE-COLD helca (so in LT1:254 and Silm; Etym has helc, evidently a misprint - it would be the only Quenya word ending in -lc in the entire corpus.) -LT1:254/Silm:433/KHEL
IDEA intya (guess, supposition), *selma (þ) ("a fixed idea, will". In WJ:319, the word is given as Selma, but S (th) would become s in Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Sindë, sindë in WJ:384; see GREY) -INK, WJ:319
IDOL cordon -LT1:257
IDRIL Itaril, Itarillë, Itarildë (obsoleting Irildë in LT2:343) -PM:346/Silm:436
IF ANYBODY aiquen (whoever) -WJ:372
ILL laiwa (sick, sickly) -SLIW
ILL-SHAPEN nauca (hard, twisted, *small - see SMALL.) -WJ:413
ILLUMINATE calya- -KAL
IMAGINATION nausë (þ) -NOWO
IMMORTAL ilfirin -PHIR
IMMOVEABLE tulca (firm, strong, steadfast; Note: there is a homonym meaning "fix, set up, establish") -TULUK cf. LT1:270
IMPLEMENT (prob. noun) yaima -GL:37
IMPOSSIBLE TO RECOUNT únyárima ("sc. because all the facts are not known, or the tale is too long"), IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY/PUT INTO WORDS úquétima (unpronounceable, unspeakable) -WJ:370
IMPULSE hórë; IMPULSION hórëa -KHOR
IN mi (within), IN THE (for *mi i?) (The version of Nam in LotR has mi where the version in RGEO:66 has the more correct form .) -MI, Nam, RGEO:66
IN A VERY GREAT NUMBER úvëa (abundant) -UB
INCARNATE (noun) #mirroanwë (only pl. mirroanwi "incarnates" is attested) -MR:350
INCITEMENT siulë -SIW
INCLINE (noun) talta -TALÁT
INCLINED penda (sloping down) -PEN
INDICATE tana- (show) (Note: tana also means "that". INDICATION tengwë (sign, token, writing - pl tengwi is attested) -MR:385, WJ:394, 395 cf. TEK
INLANDS Mittalmar (the central region of Númenor) -UT:165, 454
INNER MIND órë (heart) (Note: a homonym means "rising") -LotR:1157
INSIDE, TO THE mir, minna (into) -MI
INSIGHT tercen; OF INSIGHT, lit *INSIGHTFUL #tercenya (only pl tercenyë is attested) -MR:230
INTELLECT handelë; INTELLIGENCE handassë; INTELLIGENT handa (understanding) -KHAN
INTERIOR (adj) mitya -MI
INVENT auta- (devise, originate) (Note: a homonym means "pass"); INVENTION aulë -GAWA
INZILADÛN Palantir -UT:223, Silm:324
IRELAND Íverind- (As indicated by the hyphen, some ending is needed - a Quenya word cannot end in nd. The normal nominative form must be *Íverin, becoming Íverind(e)- before an ending, e.g. genitive *Íverindo, locative *Íverindessë [cf. Lórien, locative Lóriendessë]. The name is also given as Íwerin or Iverindor, "an island off the west coast of Tol Eressëa" - Eressëa later becoming England in this early version of Tolkien's mythology.) -LT2:344, cf 285
IRON anga, IRON or STEEL erë, eren; OF IRON angaina; IRON-HANDED Angamaitë; IRON-GAOL Angamando (Angband) -ANGÂ/LotR:1157, LT1:252, LT1:249, 268, Letters:425 cf. LotR:1085, MR:350
ÍRITH Irissë -PM:345
IS see BE
ISLAND, ISLE lóna, tol (pl tollë according to Etym, tolli in LT1:85. According to Silm:438, tol is used of islands "rising with sheer sides from the sea or from a river". LT1:269 defines a tol as "any rise standing alone in water, plain of green, etc.") THE LONELY ISLE Tol Eressëa (tol "isle" often being omitted) -LONO, TOL, RGEO:70
ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield) -LT1:269
ISOLATED TOWER mindo -MINI
ISOLATED TREE ornë -ÓR-NI- (see ORO)
ISSUE uswë (escape) -LT1:251
ISSUE OF WATER ehtelë (fountain, spring) -KEL
ISTHMUS yanwë (bridge, joining) -YAT
IT ta (that), -s (pronom inal ending, e.g. utúvienyes, "I have found [utúvienye-] it [-s]") It is uncertain what the independent word "it, even it" might be; see HE. *ITS -rya (possessive suffix, only attested with the meanings "his" and "her" [q.v.], but related forms suggest that this ending covers the entire 3. pers. sg.) -TA, LotR:1008, WJ:369

<J>

JACKET vacco (cloak) -GL:21
JAIL see GAOL
JANUARY Narvinyë (In LT1:252, the word for January is avestalis, and the latter part of the month is called Erintion, but these words are hardly valid in mature Quenya.) -LotR:1144
JAW anca (translated "jaws" in the appendices to LotR and Silm, but anca is sg and is glossed "jaw" in Etym. GL:37 has [spelt "kâ"]) -LotR:1157, Silm:427, ÁNAK
JERK (vb) rihta- (give quick twist or move) -RIK(H)
JEWEL mírë (pl. míri is attested); SHINING JEWEL miril (treasure, precious thing) WITH ADORNMENT OF RED JEWELS carnimírië (a pl form? Sg *carnimírëa? Letters:224 has carne- instead of carni-.) JEWEL OF YAVANNA yavannamírë (a flagrant evergreen tree with scarlet fruit, brought to Númenor by the Eldar) -MIR/Silm:434, Nam, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, UT:472
JOINING (noun) yanwë (isthmus, bridge) -YAT
JOY alassë (merriment) -GALÁS
JUDGE Námo (Ordainer - the name of a Vala. In MR:150, though, Námo is glossed JUDGEMENT [of what is]). Note: a homonym námo means "person". -Silm:411
JUICE sáva, pirya (syrup) -SAB, PIS
JULY Cermië -LotR:1144
JUNE Nárië -LotR:1144
JUPITER Alcarinquë (Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55. According to LT1:260, Morwen (there translated "daughter of the dark") is a name of Jupiter, but this may not be a valid word in mature Quenya. LT1:265 also mentions Silindo as a name of this planet.
JUST faila (fair-minded, generous) -PM:352

<K>

KEEN laicë (sharp, acute, *piercing); KEENNESS (of perception) laicë (acuteness) -LAIK
KEEPING (safe) mando (custody) -MR:350
KHAZAD-DÛM Casarrondo (Dwarrowvault) -WJ:389
KIN nossë (house , people) -LT1:250, 272/LT2:338
KIND nostalë (species) -LT1:272
KINDLE tinta- (cause to sparkle), turu-, tunda- (Note: there is a homonym meaning "tall") -Silm:438, LT1:270
KING aran (pl arani is attested) In Etym, the Quenya word for "king, chieftain" is haran pl. harni, but evidence from LotR, WJ and UT shows that Tolkien changed it to aran pl arani. Cf. asëa aranion (þ) "kingsfoil", i arani Eldaron "the Kings of the Eldar", Arandor "kingsland", aranya *"my king", arandil "king's friend, royalist", and arandur "king's servant, minister".) LT1:273 has vardar "king", but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya. KINGLY BULL Aramund (this may not be pure Quenya) -3AR, LotR:899, WJ:369, UT:165, 193, 313, Letters:386, 423
KINGSFISHER halatirno, or halatir (halatirn-) (lit. "fishwatcher") -SKAL2, TIR
KNIGHT roquen (rider, horseman) -UT:282 cf. WJ:372
KNOB tolos (lump) -LT1:269
KNOCK (keep on knocking) tamba- -TAM
KNOLL nóla -NDOL
KNOT narda, nútë (bond). Pl. probably *núter not *núti; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver. -SNAR, NU
KNOW ista (pa.t. sintë); KNOW ABOUT hanya- (understand, be skilled in dealing with), KNOWLEDGE handë (understanding), ista, istya, issë (lore), nólë (long study, lore, wisdom). (In Etym this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) HAVING KNOWLEDGE istima (wise, learned) -IS/LT2:339; KHAN, ÑGOL, Silm:432
K-SERIES calmatéma -LotR:1154

<L>

LABIALS parmatéma (p-series); LABIALIZED SERIES quessetéma -LotR:1154
LABERNUM Lindeloktë (singing cluster). (So in LT1:258, but Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. Read *Lindelohtë?) -LT1:258
LABOUR (vb) móta- (toil) -MÔ
LADY heri -KHER, LT1:272 (GL:45 has quimellë)
LAKE ailin (pool) (LT2:339 also has ailo); ringë (cold lake, pool [in mountains]) (Note: ringë is also an adjective meaning "cold") -AY/LT2:339, RINGI
LAMENT (vb) naina-, nyéna-; LAMENT (noun) nainië, nairë -NAY, LT1:262, RGEO:66
LAMP calma (light) -KAL/LotR:1157
LAND nórë (dwelling-place, race, country, region where certain people live, nation, native land, family), nór (meaning '"'land' as opposed to water or sea", WJ:413). In compounds #-ndor (when the first part of the compound end in a vowel, e.g. Valandor "Vala-land", alternative form of Valinor), or -nor, -dor (the latter can only occur when the first part of the compound ends in -l, -r, or -n; in other combinations d cannot occur in Noldorin Quenya). Cf. also lóna (remote land difficult to reach, island. Note: a homonym means "dark"); WESTLAND Númenor, Númenórë (Westernesse); LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor (< *Annandor, see GIFT), LAND OF THE WEST Númendor -NDOR/NÔ/Silm:430/ WJ:413, LONO, Silm:414, 313, 430
LANGUAGE quetil (tongue), lambë (tongue. The latter was "the usual word, in non-technical use, for 'language'." (WJ:394) Only the Loremasters used the technical term tengwesta "system or code of signs" instead; this word is also glossed "grammar".) LANGUAGE (as an abstract, the ability to speak or the "art" of making speech) tengwestië. LANGUAGE OF THE VALAR Lambë Valarinwa (lit. *"Valarin language"), LANGUAGE OF THE ELDAR Eldarissa (the latter may not be a valid word in mature Quenya) -KWET, WJ:394, 397, LT2:339
LARCH finë -SPIN
LARGE alta, alat- (great in size) (Tolkien's definition of this word was actually illegible, but see GREAT), úvëa (very large, abundant, in a very great number), úra -ÁLAT, UB, UR
LARK lirulin (prob. *lirulind-, cf. lindo "singing bird") -MR:238/252, LIN2
LAST tella (hindmost), telda (final), métima (final, ultimate), telwa (late), LAST YEAR yenya; LAST DAY OF YEAR quantien, THE LAST-COMERS Teleri (the Hindmost) -TELES, WJ:411, MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:267, YEN, Silm:421
LASTING QUALITY voronwië (endurance) -BORÓN
LATE telwa (last) -LT1:267
LAUGH lala- (Note: a homonym means "deny".) -PM:359 cf. 343
LAW sanyë (þ) (rule), axan (rule, commandment); LAW-ABIDING sanya (þ) (normal, regular) -STAN, WJ:399
LAWN palis (sward) -LT1:264
LAY lirilla (song) -LT1:258
LEAD (the metal) canu, LEADEN canuva -LT1:268
LEAF lassë (pl. lassi is attested); HAVING MANY LEAVES lillassëa (pl lillassië is attested); COLLECTION OF LEAVES olassië (foliage); PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (corrected from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout). LEAF-SHAPED lassecanta; LEAF-FALL lasselanta (autumn or the beginning of winter; see also FADING); LEAF-GREY lassemista -LAS1, Nam, LT1:254, MC:222, 223, Letters:282, LT1:258, KAT, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224
LEAGUE lár (basic meaning "pause" - in marches a brief halt was made for each league). A lár was defined as five thousand rangar; see YARD. A ranga was approximately 38 inches, so a lár was "5277 yards, two feet and four inches [ca. 4826 m], supposing the equivalence to be exact" - close enough to our league of 5280 yards to justify this translation. -UT:285
LEANING talta (sloping, tilted) -TALÁT
LEAP halta-; LEAPING haloitë (pl. haloisi is attested) -LT1:254
LEARNED istima (wise, having knowledge), nóla (wise). (In Etym, the latter word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Cf. also the spelling of the related word nólë in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) LEARNED MAN istyar (scholar) -IS, ÑGOL
LEAVE (vb) auta- (go away, pass), pa.t. oantë, oantië (in the physical sense "went away [to another place]") or vánë ("the most frequently used past [tense]" - less "physical" than oantë, meaning "disappeared" rather than "went away"), perf. avánië (pl avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. For "leave", Etym also has lesta, pa.t. lendë; this is also the past tense of "go". The stem from which lesta- is derived was "replaced" by another. Lesta has a wholly different meaning in later writings; see GIRDLE, MEASURE. LEAVE OUT hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, exclude, abandon, forsake) -WJ:366, ELED
LEAVE (noun) - with leave of: lenémë (+ genitive)
LEFT hyarya; LEFT-HANDED hyarmaitë
LEG telco (pl. telqui) (stem) -TELÉK
LEGENDARIUM OF THE FATHERS OF MEN Atanatárion (lit. simply "of the Fathers of Men") -MR:373
LEGOLAS Laiqualassë -LT1:267
LEMBAS coimas (life-bread) (prob. coimast-, cf. masta "bread") (life-bread) -Silm:406/429
LENGTHENED taina (extended); LENGTHENING tailë (extension) -TAY
-LESS -viltë, -valta (evidently a suffix used to derive adjectives like "homeless" = *marviltë?) -GL:23
LESSEN píca (part. #pícala is attested) (dwindle) -MC:223, 222
LETTER tengwa (pl. tengwar is attested; this word was used primarily of the Fëanorian letters. However, the term "Tengwar of Rúmil" occurring in LotR:1151 seems to indicate that the word tengwa can indeed be used of a letter of any kind, not only the Fëanorian letters. In non-technical use tengwa may also be translated "consonant" [q.v.]. It is uncertain whether tengwa "letter" can be used in the sense mail, text sent in the post; the primary meaning is clearly "character, a single symbol in writing".) sarat (pl. sarati is attested) - an older [MET] word Tolkien notes was used of "a 'letter' or any individual significant mark", used of the Rúmilian letters after the invention of the Fëanorian Tengwar (but cf. the term "Tengwar of Rúmil" mentioned above). -TEK, WJ:396, LotR:1151
LICK salpa- (sup, sip), lavin ("I lick", 1. pers. aorist; past tense #lávë is attested in the word undulávë "downlicked" in Nam); LICK (frequentatively) lapsa- -SÁLAP cf. LT1:266, DAB/Nam
LIE (noun, = untruth) furu -GL:36
LIE (vb, not "tell a lie" but "lie [horisontally]") caita-; LIE HEAVY lumna- (Note: this is also an adjective meaning "lying heavy") -Nam/RGEO:67, DUB
LIFE cuilë (being alive; obsoleting coi, coirë in LT1:257; the latter means "stirring, spring" in mature Quenya); NEW LIFE laito, laisi (vigour, youth), LIFE-BREAD coimas (prob. coimast[a]-, cf. masta "bread") (lembas) -KUY, LT1:267, Silm:406/429
LIFT UP orta- (raise, rise; pa.t. ortanë is attested) -Nam/ORO/RGEO:67
LIGHT cálë, cala; A LIGHT calina (which is basically the adjective "light", but it is used substantively in coacalina; see LIGHT OF THE HOUSE under HOUSE), calma (lamp), LIGHT (adj) calina; RAY OF LIGHT alca; GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; STARLIGHT or LIGHT OF SILPION (Telperion) silmë (+silver), MOONLIGHT isilmë; EMIT LIGHT faina-; LIGHT-ELVES, ELVES OF THE LIGHT Calaquendi; LIGHT-CLEFT Calacirya (gen. Calaciryo is attested) -KAL, MR:250, AKLA-R, RIL, SIL/LotR:1157, MC:223, PHAY, WJ:361/Silm:61, RGEO:70/Nam
LIKE (prep) ve (as) -Nam/RGEO:66, 67
LILY indil ("or other large single flower"), nénu (= yellow water lily) -WJ:399, LT1:248
LINE OF SURF falassë (beach, shore) -Silm:431
LINDI Lindi (What the Nandorin Elves called themselves; the word could be adopted unchanged into Exilic Quenya. Sg #Lindë?) -WJ:385
LINDIL Sindarin form of LINDI, q.v. -WJ:385
LINDON Lindon, Lindónë -WJ:385
LINE tië (path, direction, course, way, road), tëa (straight line, road), téma (row, series) (pl. témar is attested in LotR:1153) -TE3/RGEO:67, TEÑ
LIP cíla (The normal plural would be a dual form: *cílat.) -GL:24
LION (pl rávi) (so in Etym; LT1:260 has rau, but pl rávi is the same.) SHE-LION ravennë -RAW, LT1:260
LIQUID (adj) sírima (flowing) -LT1:265
LISTEN lár-, lasta-; LISTENING (adj) lasta (hearing) -LAS2
LITTLE titta (tiny). LITTLE ELF Teler, Telellë (adj. telerëa, telella) -TIT, LT1:267
LO! ela (look! see!) (directing sight to an actually visible object) -WJ:362 cf. 360
LOAF cornë -LT1:257
LOATH yelta-; LOATHING yelma; LOATHSOME yelwa -DYEL
LOCK OF HAIR findë (tress), fassë (shaggy lock, tangled hair) -SPIN
LOFTY tára (tall, high) (According to Letters:282, Varda means "Lofty" [WJ:402 has "the Sublime"], but this word should probably not be used as a common adjective.) LOFTY TOWER see TOWER. -TÂ/Silm:437/LT1:264
LOGDRAWING turuhalmë -LT1:270
LONELY eressëa; LONELY ISLE Tol Eressëa (tol "isle" often being omitted) -ERE, RGEO:70
LONG (adj) anda, sóra (trailing); LONG AND THIN lenwa (straight, narrow); LONG (adverb, of time:) andavë; LONG YEAR (144 solar years, an Elvish "century") yén (pl. yéni is attested) LONG-MARK andatehta -ÁNAD, LT2:344, 341, LotR:989, Nam/LotR:1141/YEN, TEK
LONG FOR milya-; GREAT LONGING mavoinë -MIL-IK, LT2:345
LONG-LASTING voronwa (enduring) -BORÓN
LOOK AT yéta-; LOOK! (interj) en (there, look! yonder) LOOK! ela (lo! see!) (directing sight to an actually visible object) -LT1:262, EN, WJ:362 cf. 360
LOOM (noun) lanwa, windelë -LAN, LT1:254
LOOSE leuca-, lehta- (slacken) (Note: leuca is also a noun meaning "snake". Anyway, leuca- in Etym is likely a misreading for *lenca-. The certain form lehta- is to be preferred.) -LEK
LORD heru, hér, as final part of compounds: #her, e.g. Ostoher *"City-Lord". LORDSHIP hérë; LORD OF TREES Aldaron (a name of Oromë) -LT1:272, Silm:432, Letters:282, LotR:1122, Silm:32, 378
LORE nólë (long study, wisdom, knowledge), +ingolë (deep lore, magic [in WJ:382, the gloss is simply "lore", and the word is not stated to be poetic]), issë; SECRET LORE nolwë (wisdom). (These forms obsolete nólemë in LT1:263. In some sources, nólë and nolwë are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Cf. also the spelling of the related word nólë in Silm:432. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) LOREMASTER ingolmo (In Lambengolmor "Loremasters of Tongues" the initial i of ingolmo [pl ingolmor] has disappeared; perhaps #ngolmo is the form used in compounds when the first part of the compound ends in a vowel.) -ÑGOL, LT2:339, WJ:382, WJ:383/396
LOST vanwa (gone, departed, vanished, past and over, no longer to be had, dead); ONE LOST OR FORSAKEN BY FRIENDS hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (waif, outcast, outlaw) -WAN, Nam, WJ:366, 365
LOT marto (fortune, fate) -LT2:348
LOUD SOUND róma (trumpet-sound) (Note: róma also means "shoulder".) MUSICAL SOUND lin (lind-) (melody) -ROM, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308
LOVE (vb, love as friend) mel-; LOVE (noun) melmë (LT1:262 has meles, melessë); LOVELY melwa, LOVING nilda (friendly); BELOVED melda (dear), LOVER meldo (pl meldor is attested), melindo (m.), melissë (f.); LOVEABLE melima (fair), írima (desireable) -MEL, LT1:262, WJ:412, NIL, ID
LOW, LOWLYING tumna (deep, profound, dark or hidden); LOWER AIR vilma (earlier [MET] wilma), Aiwenor (lit. "Birdland") -TUB cf. LT1:271, WIL, AIWÊ
LOWER (vb) luvu- (brood); DARK LOWERING CLOUD lumbo (pl. lumbor is attested). -LT1:259
LUCK valto (LT2:348 gives mart "a piece of luck", but word-final rt does not occur in mature Quenya. Read *martë or something similar?) -LT1:272, LT2:348
LUMP tolos (knob) -LT1:269
LUST mailë; LUSTFUL mailëa -MIL-IK
LYING HEAVY lumna (heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous) (Note: lumna is also a verb meaning "lie heavy"); LYING IN BED caila (sickness) -DUB, KAY
LYRE salma -LT1:265

<M>

MAEDHROS Nelyafinwë (meaning "Finwë third", not equivalent in sense to Sindarin Maedhros. The short form of the name was Nelyo. His mother-name [q.v.], "recorded....though never used in narrative", was Maitimo "well-shaped one". He also had a nickname Russandol "copper-top") -PM:352, 353
MAGIC +ingolë (deep lore). In LT1:269, curu is glossed "magic, wizardry", but in Etym the gloss is simply "skill". MAGIC (adj.) sairina -ÑGOL, GL:72
MAGLOR Canafinwë, short form Cáno (not equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name, which is the cognate of his "mother-name" Macalaurë, "recorded...though never used in narrative"). -PM:352, 353
MAID, MAIDEN wendë, vendë (the latter is probably the later [MET] form), also short form wen pl. wendi (girl). In compounds -wen, e.g. Nerwen "Man-maiden" (prob. *-wend-) MAIDENHOOD wendelë -WEN, LT1:271/273/Silm:439
MAKE carin ("I make, build", 1. pers. aorist. The same verb is translated "form" in WJ:391: i carir quettar, "those who form words". According to Etym the past tense is carnë, but both FS and SD:246 have cárë. Past participle #carna *"made" is attested in Vincarna *"newly-made" in MR:305.) MAKING carmë (glossed "art" in UT:396 and is also translated "production", but cf. the following:) NAME-MAKING Essecarmë (an Eldarin seremony in which the father of a child announces its name.) -KAR, WJ:391, MR:214
MALE (noun) hanu (male of Men/Elves or animals); MALE (adj) hanwa -3AN, INI
MAN nér (ner-) (#ner as the final element in compounds, as in vëaner and úner, see below), vëo (-wë as final element in compounds); (ADULT) MAN vëaner; MANLY vëa (adult, vigorous); MANHOOD vië (vigour); MAN-SPEARHEAD (a wedge-formation of soldiers) nernehta, NOMAN úner (All these words can apparently be used of adult males of any sentient race. For "Men" in the sence "humans", see MORTALS, FOLLOWERS.) -DER, WEG, UT:282, UT:211
MANY limbë, lin- (prefix: by assimilation it becomes lil- before l, as in lillassëa "having many leaves"; before m, r, s it would similarly become *lim-, *lir-, *lis-). -LT2:342, LI, Plotz letter
MAR #hasta- (verb stem isolated from the past participle hastaina, see below); MARRED hastaina (Arda Marred = Arda Hastaina); UNMARRED alahasta -MR:255, 254
MARBLE alast- (sic - some ending is obviously required, e.g. *alasta) -GL:39
MARCH Súlimë -LotR:1144/Silm:437 (not capitalized in the latter source)
MARINER ciryamo, (professional mariner:) ëarendur, Eärendilyon ("son of Eärendil [used of any mariner]", prob. *Eärendilyond-) -UT:8, Letters:386, LT1:250
MARK (in writing) tehta- (sign, diacritic) (In LotR:1155, this word is applied to the supralinear vowel-signs of Fëanorian writing, and pl tehtar is attested.) sarat (pl. sarati is attested), originally [MET] a word used of "a 'letter' or any individual significant mark", but after the invention of the Tengwar primarily used of the earlier Rúmilian letters. TINY MARK tixë (dot, point) -TEK, TIK, WJ:396
MARS Carnil -Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55
MAST ferna (beechnuts), tyulma -PHER, TYUL/SD:419
MASTER (noun) heru (lor d), #tur (cf. Fëanturi "Masters of Spirits", a name of the Valar Mandos and Irmo). MASTER OF DOOM Turambar, MASTER OF DESIRE Irmo (lit. "Desirer", the name of a Vala); MASTERY túrë (victory); MASTERED #turúna (only the form turún', with the final *-a elided, is attested. Silm:269 has turun instead of turún' - the accent and he elision mark seem to have been omitted.) -KHER, TUR/UT:438, Silm:261/269/423, 405, UT:138
MATRIMONY vesta -BES
MATTER (basic matter:) erma; PHYSICAL MATTER orma, hroa (the latter is also used = "body") -MR:338, 218, 216
MAVWIN Mavoinë -LT2:345
MAY Lótessë (In LT1:252/254, the word for May is Kalainis, but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya.) -LotR:1144
ME The ending -n, attested only as subject, may be employed: *Utúvielyen, "thou (-lye-) hast found me (-n)". It has been theorized that ni is the independent word for "me", but actually it seems to be a non-emphatic word for "I" (so in Arct; contrast the emphatic inyë; see "I"). Tye "thee" may point to something like *nye as the independent word for "me", but such extrapolations are uncertain. Case endings may be added to ni, e.g. dative nin "for me" (Nam).
MEADOW - LT1:267 (GL:39) has lairë, but this has already two different meanings in mature Quenya ("summer" and "poem"), so it is somewhat doubtful whether this word from Tolkien's earliest linguistic constructions is valid in later Quenya.
MEAL porë (flour) -POR
MEAN faica (contemptible) -SPAY
MEASURE #lesta (only attested in instrumental form lestanen "in measure". Note: #lesta also means "girdle".) -FS
MEAT apsa (cooked food) -AP
MEED míruvórë (nectar, drink of the Valar) -NAM, RGEO:66, 69, LT1:261
MEETING (junction of the direction of two persons or groups:) omentië, (of three or more coming from different directions:) yomenië -WJ:367, 407, LotR:94
MELIAN Melyanna ("dear gift", evidently melya + anna) -Silm:434
MELODY lin (lind-) (musical sound), MELODIOUS lindelëa -LT1:258, cf. LotR:488 and Letters:308
MEN see MAN or MORTALS, FOLLOWERS
MERCURY (the planet, not the metal) Elemmírë -Basic Quenya:24
MERCHILD oar (child of the sea), MERMAID oaris (oarits-), oarwen (prob. *oarwend-) (so in LT1:263 - read ëaris, ëarwen in mature Quenya?)
MERRIMENT alassë (joy) -GALÁS
MESH rembë -LotR:1149
METAL tinco, rauta -TINKÔ/LotR:1157, RAUTÂ
MEWING miulë (whining)
MICKLEBURG Túrosto (Belegost) -WJ:389
MIDDLE (noun) endë (core, centre); MIDDLE (prob. adj) enya, endya (In Noldorin Quenya, enya would be the natural form - endya looks like Vanyarin Quenya. Cf. the name of the language itself in the two dialects, Quenya vs. Quendya.) MIDDLE-DAY #enderë (only pl enderi is attested; for sg #enderë cf. yestarë, mettarë, the first and the last day of the year. The "middle-days" were three days inserted between the months of yávië and quellë in the Calendar of Imladris.) -ÉNED, cf. WJ:361, LotR:1142
MIDDLE-EARTH Endórë, Endor (defined as "centre of the world" under ÉNED; allative form Endorenna is attested in LotR. Other names are also glossed "Middle-earth": Ambarenya, Endamar; see also EAST) -LotR:1003, ÉNED, MBAR
MIGHTY taura, poldórëa (a title of Tulkas); MIGHTY-RISING Melkórë (> Melkor) (uprising of Power), THE MIGHTY Melko (an alternative form of Melkor, derived from an unattested adjective *melka, *melca "mighty", with connotations of violence.) -TUR, LT1:264/GL:64, MR:350
MILCH COW yaxë. (An alternative form yaxi, glossed "cow", looks like a plural in mature Quenya.) -GL:36
MIND indo (heart, mood), (inner mind:) órë (heart) (Note: a homonym means "rising"); MIND-MOOD inwisti -MR:216, LotR:1157, MR:229
MINISTER arandur (king's servant, steward) -Letters:386, UT:313
MISERY angayassë -LT1:249
MIST hísië (þ), hísë (þ) (fog. Note: a homonym means "dusk". For "mist" use hísië, the form occurring in LotR.) -Nam/RGEO:67, KHIS
MOAT see WALL AND MOAT
MOCKING yaiwë (scorn) -YAY
MOIST nítë (dewy) -NEI
MOLE noldarë, nolpa -GL:30
M ONSTER ulundo, úvanimo (creature of Melkor. In LT1:236, Úvanimor are said to be "monsters, giants, and ogres". See also ORC.) -ÚLUG, BAN/LT1:272
MONTH #asta (only pl astar is attested) -LotR:1142
MOOD indo (heart, mind) -ID
MOON Isil (-S-), Rána (so in Silm and UT; Etym has Rana with a short a), CRESCENT MOON (bow), MOONLIGHT isilmë -I/THIL/LotR:1148, Silm:436/UT:242, RAN, LT1:271, MC:222, 223
MORE yonta (In GL:37, this word is followed by a hyphen: yonta-. Does this indicate that it can be used as a comparative prefix? E.g. yonta "fair", *yontavanya "fairer"???)
MORGOTH Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho, but it should not be used by writers writing in Third Age Quenya) (Black Foe) -MR:194
MORN (early) artuilë, tuilë (the latter is also used in the sense "springtime") -TUY
MORNING (noun) arin (LT1:254 gives cálë, but this word means "light" in later writings), MORNING (used as adj?) arinya (early) -AR1
MORTAL fírima (pl. Fírimar is attested, lit. "those apt to die", WJ:387), Firya (pl. Firyar is attested); MORTAL MAN firë (pl firi is given but seems perfectly regular) -PHIR, WJ:387
MOTHER amil, ammë, (hypocoristic, = *"mom":) nana. MOTHER-NAME (OF INSIGHT) #amilessë (tercenya) (i.e., names given by Elvish mothers to their children, indicating some dominant feature of the nature of the child as perceived by its mother. Only pl amilessi tercenyë is attested.) -AM1, NAN, MR:217
MOUND coron, hahta (pile), cumbë (heap), tundo (hill) -Sil:429, KHAG, KUB, TUN
MOUNTAIN oron (pl oronti) (also used = "mount", e.g. Oron Oiolossë "Mount Everwhite"), MOUNTAIN-PEAK aicassë; MOUNTAIN-TOP orto; MOUNTAIN PASS falqua (cleft, ravine), MOUNTAIN-DWELLING (adj) orofarnë (pl? Sg *orofarna?) -ÓROT/WJ:403, AYAK, LT2:341, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224
MOUTH anto, , assa (hole, opening, perforation), MOUTH OF RIVER etsir -LotR:1157, PEG, GAS, ET
MOVE (intr., of large and heavy things:) rúma- (part. rúmala is attested) (shift, heave) -MC:223, 222
MURK hui (fog, dark, night), MURKY huiva -LT1:253
MURMUR nurru- (grumble) -MC:223
MUSCLE tuo (sinew, strength) -TUG
MUSIC #lindalë (isolated from Ainulindalë "The Music of the Ainur"; Etym and LT1:258 has lindelë; the latter is also glossed "song".) -Silm:378, LIN
MY -nya (possessive suffix, e.g. *aldanya "my tree". An i seems to be inserted between the ending and the noun when the latter ends in a consonant: atarinya "my father" (LR:61). If the last consonant(s) of the noun is/are n or the cluster nd, a contracted form may be used in vocatives: hinya "my child" (for hínanya, WJ:403), yonya "my son" (for *yondonya, LR:61).

<N>

NAIL (prob. noun) taxë -TAK
NAKED helda -SKEL
NAME (noun) essë (pl. essi is attested. Note: the word essë was also used in the sense "person as a whole", body and soul.) AFTER-NAME epessë (i.e., "a nickname - mostly given as a title of admiration or honour"); MOTHER-NAME (OF INSIGHT) #amilessë (tercenya) (i.e. names given by Elvish mothers to their children, indicating some dominant feature of the nature of the child as perceived by its mother. Only pl amilessi tercenyë is attested.) NAME OF INSIGHT #essë tercenya (i.e., the same as "mother-name"; only pl essi tercenyë is attested); GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This word encompasses both "after-names" and "mother-names".) NAME-MAKING Essecarmë (an Eldarin seremony in which the father of a child announces its name), NAME-CHOOSING Essecilmë (an Eldarin seremony in which a person chooses a name according to his or her personal lámatyávë or sound-taste); SELF-NAME #cilmessë (only pl. cilmessi is attested, said to mean more literally "names of personal choice": #cilmë "choice" + essi "names". PM:339 explains that "some among the exiles gave themselves names, as disguises or in reference to their own deeds and personal history: such names were called kilmessi 'self-names'.") -ES/LotR:1157/MR:216, UT:266, MR:217, 214
NARRATOR quentaro -KWET
NARROW arca, lenwa (long and thin, straight) NARROW NECK yatta (isthmus); NARROW PATH axa; NARROW PROMONTORY nehtë (spear-head, gore, wedge) -AK, LT2:341, YAK, UT:282
NASAL nengwëa -NEÑ-WI
NATION nórë, -nor (land, country, dwelling-place, native land, family) -LT1:272
NATIVE LAND nórë, -nor (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, family) -LT1:272
NAZGÛL Úlairi (Ring-wraiths) (pl; sg #Úlairë?) -Silm:362, 417
NEAR har, harë -LT1:253
NECK yat (yaht-); NARROW NECK yatta (isthmus) -YAK
NECKLACE firinga (carnanet) -LT2:346, GL:36
NECTAR míruvórë (meed, drink of the Valar) -Nam, RGEO:66, LT1:260
NEED (prob. noun) maurë -MBAW
NEPTUNE Nénar (or less probably Luinil; it is not known for certain which of the two is Neptune and which is Uranus) -Basic Quenya:24, Silm:55
NET natsë (web) -NAT
NEW vinya (cf. Vinyamar "New Dwelling", Vinyalondë "New Haven"), sinya. NEW LIFE laito, laisi (vigour, youth) -Silm:425, UT:471, SIN, LT1:267
NEXT ento -Arct
NICKNAME ("mostly given as a title of admiration or honour") epessë (after-name) -UT:266
NIGHT lómë, ("Night, night-time, [shades of night]", in LT1:255 glossed "dusk, gloom, darkness"), Fui, Hui ("Night" - in LT1:253, hui is glossed "fog, dark, murk, night"), ("night, a night"), mórë (blackness, dark - obsoleting mori in LT1:260). In Valinorean usage, lómë "has no evil connotations; it is a word of peace and beauty and has none of the associations of fear and groping that, say, 'dark' has to us. For the evil sense I [Tolkien's character Lowdham] do not know the [Quenya] word". For "night" in the "evil sense", mórë seems to be the best candidate. Yet lómë evidently developed darker connotations among the Exiles, for when crying auta i lómë "the night is passing" before the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, the Noldor used the word metaphorically to mean the rule of Morgoth. -DO3, PHUY, SD:306, Silm:229
NIGHTINGALE lómelindë (pl lómelindi is attested; Etym also has morilindë), tindómerel ("daughter of twilight", a kenning of or a poetic name for the nightingale; the Sindarin equivalent is tinúviel. Tolkien changed the meaning of the final element from "daughter" to "child", see SEL-D-.) -DO3, Silm:64, MOR, TIN/Silm:422, 438
NINE nertë (obsoleting olma in LT1:258) -NÉTER
NO (also meaning "not". is probably used to deny facts, or what others present as facts. In some contexts, the interjection is to be preferred. It is derived from a stem that "expressed refusal to do what others might wish or urge, or prohibition of some action by others.) Cf also lala, lau, laumë "no, no indeed not, on the contrary; also used for asking incredulous questions". Prefixes "no-, un-": ú-, il-. SAY NO váquet- (forbid, refuse) (1. pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given), ava- (refuse) (pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was "little used in ordinary language"). -LA, WJ:371 cf. 370, GÛ, WJ:370, KWET
NO LONGER TO BE HAD vanwa (gone, dead, departed, lost, past, vanished) -WJ:366
NOBLE (a noble:) arquen The element #ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean "high (i.e., noble, revered). Arquen is simply #ar "noble" + quen "person". NOBLE WOMAN (one of Galadriel's names) Artanis. -WJ:372, WJ:416, PM:347
NOGROD Návarot (Hollowbold, Novrod) -WJ:389
NOISE ran, roaring noise rávë (pl. probably *ráver not *rávi, compare the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver); (noise of a) storm raumo -LT1:259, MC:223
NOLDORIN Noldorin (= the language of the Noldor), Noldorinwa (= general adjective) -WJ:20, LR:201
NOMAN Úner -UT:211
NORMAL sanya (þ) (regular, law-abiding) -STAN
NORTH Formen, fortë (right); NORTHERN formenya; NORTHLANDS (a region in Númenor) Forostar -PHOR, LotR:1157, UT:165, 439
NOSE nengwë, mundo (snout, cape) (Note: the latter word also means "ox") -NEÑ-WI, MBUD
NOT ; NO INDEED NOT lala; DON'T áva, avá; DON'T DO IT! áva carë!; I WILL NOT: (exclamation, also = Do not!); avan, ván, vanyë "I won't", avammë, vammë "we won't"; NOT COUNTING hequa (leaving aside, excluding, except), NOT TO BE SAID, THAT MUST NOT BE SAID avaquétima, NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima -LA, WJ:371, 364/365, WJ:370
NOVEMBER Hísimë -LotR:1144
NOVROD Návarot (Hollowbold, Nogrod) -WJ:389
NOW , sín/sin (the latter form is evidently used when the next word has an initial vowel; cf. the distribution of "a" and "an" in English.) -SI, cf. LR:47
NUMBER nótë, LARGE NUMBER hosta, IN A VERY GREAT NUMBER úvëa; NUMBERLESS únótimë (uncountable) -NOT, KHOTH, UB, Nam
NUMEROUS rimba (frequent)
NYMPH wingil, wingild- (pl WIngildi is attested); falmar, falmarin (falmarind-). (Writers should use falmarin rather than falmar, thus avoiding any possible confusion with falmar "waves".) -WIG/LT1:273, PHAL

<O>

O (vocative particle) a -LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308
OAK norno; HAVING MANY OAK-TREES lindornëa -DÓRON, LIN
OATH vérë (bond, troth, compact. Pl. probably *vérer not *véri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver), vanda (pledge, solemn promise) -WED, UT:317
OBLIGED nauta (bound) -NUT
OBSCURE nulla (dark, dusky) OBSCURITY mordo (shadow, stain) -NDUL, MOR
OBSERVE - use the word glossed "watch, heed", q.v. Cf. LT1:258.
OCCASION (a time) -LU
OCEAN The Great Ocean Alatairë, The Outer Ocean Vai (=Ekkaia?) -AYAR, LT1:271
OCTOBER Narquelië -LotR:1144/1146
ODOUR holmë -ÑOL
OFF au- (verbal prefix implying motion "away from the speaker or the place of his thought", as in auciri- "cut off, so that a portion is lost or no longer available"), hó- (verbal prefix implying motion away from something, but the point of view is outside the thing left: cf. hóciri- "cut off a required portion, so as to have it or use it") -WJ:365, 366, 368
OGRE Úvanimo (see MONSTER). CANNIBAL-OGRES Sarquindi (sg #Sarquindë?) -LT1:236 cf. BAN, LT2:347
OINTMENT laivë -LIB
OLD enwina, linyenwa (having many years), (of things:) yerna (worn); OLDEN yárëa, yalúmëa, GET OLD yerya- (wear [out]) -MC:222 cf. 215, YEN, GYER
OMINOUS lumna (lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive) -DUB
ON or (so in LT1:256, but in mature Quenya or is always translated "over". English "on" may be rendered by the allative case, see UPON.)
ONCE UPON A TIME yassë, yalúmessë, yáressë (Note: the first of these seems to clash with *yassë "in/on which". Writers should use one of the two alternative forms.) -YA
ONE minë (obsoleting mir in LT1:260), er (only, one, alone, but, still); ONE (= a person, someone) quén pl queni (unstressed quen, "as a pronoun or final element in a compound"); THE ONE Eru (see GOD) -MINI, ERE, WJ:361 cf. 360, Silm:15, 431
ONLY eressë (singly, alone, also as noun = solitude) -ERE, LT1:269
OPEN (vb) panta- (unfurl, spread out); OPEN WIDE palu-, palya- (extend); OPEN (adj) panta, (of land:) latin, latina (free, cleared); OPENING assa (hole, performation, mouth); OPENMOUTHED fauca (thirsty, parched) -PAT, PAL, LAT, GAS, PHAU
OPPRESSIVE lumna (lying heavy, burdensome, ominous) -DUB
ORANGE culuina (colour), culuma (fruit) -KUL
ORC (goblin) urco (pl urqui) or orco (pl. orqui or orcor) (LT1:264 has orc, but word-final rc does not occur in mature Quenya. Here the gloss is "monster, demon". Cf. WJ:390: "In the lore of the Blessed Realm the Q urko naturally seldom occurs, except in tales of the ancient days and the March, and then is vague in meaning, referring to anything that caused fear to the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature.") See also ORKISH. -ÓROK, LT1:264, WJ:390
ORDAINER Námo (Judge - the name of a Vala) -Silm:411
ORDER (noun) heren (Heren Istarion "Order of Wizards"); ORDER (vb) vala- (used of the Valar only, as in á vala Manwë "may Manwë order it", Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar will be done", *"the Valar will order [it]". -UT:388, WJ:404
ORIENT ambaron (ambarón-), Ambarónë (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR) -AM2, LotR:490
ORIGINATE auta- (invent, devise) -GAWA
ORION Telumehtar ("warrior of the sky", according to WJ:411 an old name, later [MET] evidently replaced by:) Menelmacar ("Swordsman of the Sky") -TEL, WJ:411, LotR:1147 cf. 95
ORKISH Orquin (attested with reference to language, perhaps also general adjective) -LR:178
OUR *-mma (pronominal ending used on nouns, e.g. *aldamma "our tree". It is not attested, but may be deduced from the word for "we", q.v. This "our" is exclusive, meaning "their and my", not including the person(s) that is spoken to. The inclusive ending for "your and our" is *-lma, or in the dual -lva ("our" meaning "your (sg) and mine", as in omentielvo "of our [Frodo's and Gildor's] meeting, LotR:94). In the first edition of LotR, the wrong form omentielmo is used (plural instead of dual). The ending for dual exclusive "our" (sc. "our" meaning "his/her and mine") is unknown. The emphatic, independent words for "our" may be *emma, *elma, *elva. -LotR:94, cf. Letters:447
OUT et- (prefix) (forth), OUT OF et (followed by ablative) -ET, LotR:1003
OUTCAST hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outlaw) -WJ:365
OUTER, OUTERMOST erúmëa -LT1:262
OUTER LANDS Entar, Entarda (Middle-earth, East, Thither Lands [as seen from Valinor]), ettelë (the word is not capitalized and seems to be sg); OUTER OCEAN Vai (= Ekkaia?) -ET, LT1:271
OUTLAW hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, waif, outcast) -WJ:365
OUTSIDE ara (beside), ava, ettë, (prefix:) ar- (e.g. Araman "outside Aman") -AR2; AWA, ET, Silm:428
OVEN urna -LT1:271
OVER or. For "over" in the sense past, see PAST AND OVER. -UT:305
OVERCAST lúrëa (dark) -LT1:259
OVERSHADOW telta- (canopy, screen) -TEL
OX mundo (Note: a homonym means "snout, nose, cape". It may or may not obsolete the form taracu "ox" in LT2.) See also BULL. -Letters:422, LT2:347/GL:69
OXFORD - LT2 gives Taruktarna (read *Taruhtarna in mature Quenya), but the word may be obsolete. See OX above. -LT2:347

<P>

PACE ranga (pl rangar is stated to mean "full paces"). The ranga was a Númenórean linear measure of approximately 38 inches (96.5 cm); see YARD. -UT:285
PAGAN GOD see GOD
PAIN (vb) nwalya- (torment). (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalya- must be from older *ngwalya, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalya.) PAIN (noun) naicelë, naicë (= sharp pain); PAINFUL naicelëa -ÑGWAL, NÁYAK
PALATAL SERIES tyelpetéma -LotR:1154
PALE marya (fallow, fawn), malwa (fallow), isca. PALE BLUE helwa -MAD, SMAL, LT1:256, 3EL
PALLID ninquë (chill, white) -WJ:417 cf. NIK-W-
PANSY helin, Helinyetillë ("Eyes of heartsease") (violet) -LT1:262
PARCHED fauca (openmouthed, thirsty) -PHAU
PARCHMENT - in LT2:346, parma "book" is glossed "parchment", but see BARK.
PARENT #nostar (only pl nostari is attested); ontaro (m), ontarë (f), pl ontani parents (begetter) -LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, ONO
PASS auta- (leave, go away); pa.t. oantë, oantië (in the physical sense "went away [to another place]", vánë ("the most frequently used past [tense]" - less "physical" than oantë, meaning *"disappeared" rather than "passed away"), also anwë (this pa.t. was "only found in archaic language"), perf. avánië (pl avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. -WJ:366; for the gloss "pass" see Silm:229
PASS - mountain pass: falqua (cleft, ravine); pass between hills: cilya (cleft, gorge) (so in Etym, but #cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] - though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) -LT2:341, KIL
PASSAGE tarna (crossing, #ford) -LT2:347
PAST, PAST AND OVER (adj) vanwa (departed, lost, vanished, dead, no longer to be had), PAST (noun = past time) vanwië -WAN, Nam
PATH tië (course, line, direction, way, road); #vanda (isolated from Qualvanda "Road of Death" in LT1:264; cf. vand- "way, path" on the same page); NARROW PATH axa (ravine);
-TE3/RGEO:67/UT:22 cf. 51, LT1:264, AK
PAUSE lár (also a Númenórean linear measure, nearly one league - see LEAGUE.) -UT:285
PAVED FLOOR paca (court) -TAL, GL:63
PEACE sérë (repose, rest), AT PEACE senda (resting) -SED
PEAK aicalë; MOUNTAIN PEAK aicassë, also #rassë or #ras (isolated from Arfanyarassë, Arfanyaras "high white-shining peak"). -AYAK, WJ:416
PEARL marilla -LT1:265
PEBBLE-BANK sarnië (shingle) -UT:463
PEER tihta- (blink) -MC:223
PEN tecil -TEK
PEOPLE lië, nossë (kin, house). Originally nórë meant "people", but in later [MET] Quenya it means primarily "land". SOME PEOPLE queni -LI, LT1:250/LT2:338, WJ:361 cf. 360
PERCEPTION, KEENNESS OF laicë (acuteness) -LAIK
PEREDHIL Pereldar (the Half-Elven) -Letters:386, cf. LotR:1071
PERFORMATION assa (hole, opening, mouth) -GAS
PERIOD (endless) oio -UT:317
PERPETUAL #oien (isolated from oiencarmë "perpetual production" - but it has also been suggested that this is oi-en-carmë *"ever-re-making", so the word oien is rather doubtful) -MR:329
PERSON quén pl. queni (one, somebody); PERSON AS A WHOLE (body + soul) essë (basically meaning "name"), erdë ("singularity". Note: a homonym means "seed, germ".) -WJ:361 cf. 360, MR:216
PETTY #pitya (isolated from Pitya-naucor "petty-dwarves", see below).
PETTY-DWARVES Attalyar (lit. "Bipeds"), Picinaucor, Pitya-naucor (lit. *"small dwarves") -WJ:388, 389
PHANTOM fairë ("phantom, disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape" - pl. fairi is attested. Note: fairë has other shades of meaning as well as wholly different meanings - see SPIRIT, DEATH, RADIANCE, FREEDOM) -MC:223, 221
PHARAZÔN Calion -UT:224, Silm:324
PHONETIC #hlonítë (only attested in the pl. in hloníti tengwi "phonetic signs") -WJ:395
PHYSICAL MATTER orma, hroa (also used = "body"); PHYSICAL STRENGTH tuo -MR:218, 216, TUG
PIERCING maica (sharp), terevë (fine, acute), laicë (glossed "keen, sharp, acute", never "piercing" - but the earlier [TLT] form was laica, glossed "keen, piercing". Note: laicë is also a noun meaning "acuteness, keenness".) -Silm:434, LT1:255, LT2:337
PILE hahta (mound) -KHAG
PILLAR tarma, tulwë (standard, pole) -Silm:438, LT1:270
PILLOW quesset -KWES
PIN tancil (brooch) -TAK
PINETREE - GL:17 has aicassë, but in Etym this word is said to mean "mountain-peak".
PINNACLE (topmost) see FINISH.
PIPE simpa, simpina (flute), rotsë. PIPER simpetar, PIPING simpisë -LT1:266, LT2:347
PIT latta (hole - Note: a homonym means "strap") -DAT
PIVOT peltas (pl peltaxi) -PEL
PLACE men (so in Etym, though this word would clash with *men "to/for us". In LotR, sinomë is translated "on this place", pointing to #nomë as the word for "place". Tolkien first wrote símanë, then changed it to sinomë. If #man in the first word is a variant form of men, Tolkien evidently rejected #man/men in favour of #nomë. On the other hand, men is also mentioned in the language notes in RGEO (p. 72), a late source that is not easily dismissed.) STRONG PLACE sarnë -MEN, LotR:1003, SD:56, SAR
*PLANT #olva (only pl olvar is attested, never actually translated "plants" but defined as "growing things with roots in the earth"); LONG TRAILING PLANT uilë ("especially sea-weed", which is explicitly ëaruilë) -Silm:415, UY
PLAY (vb) tyalin ("I play", 1. pers. aorist), PLAY(noun) tyalië (game, sport) -TYAL/LT1:260
PLEDGE vanda (oath, solemn promise) -UT:317
PLENITUDE fárë (all that is wanted, sufficiency) -PHAR
PLIANT maxa (soft) -MASAG
PLOUGH hyar; THE PLOUGH (constellation) see SICKLE OF THE VALAR. -LT2:342
PLUM pio (also used for "cherry") -LT2:347
POEM lairë (Note: a homonym means "summer"), lirit -GLIR, LT1:258
POINT mentë (end), nasta (spearhead, gore, triangle), tixë (dot, tiny mark), tildë (horn), amatixë (point/dot over the line of writing), nuntixë (point/dot under the line of writing) -MET, SNAS, TIK, TIL
POISON (noun) sangwa -SAG
POLLEN malo (yellow powder) -SMAL
POOL nendë, linya, ailin (lake), ringë (cold lake); POOL OF LILIES nénuvar -NEN, LIN, AY, RINGI, LT1:248
POPLAR-TREE tyulussë; HAVING MANY POPLARS lintyulussëa -TYUL, LIN
POPPY fúmella (pl. fumellar [read *fúmellar?] is attested), fúmellot (prob. fúmellót-; cf. lótë "flower". Fúmellot is literally *"flower of sleep", but do not necessarily refer to opium poppies only.) -LT1:252
POSSESS harya-; POSSESSING arwa (+ genitive) (in control of) (Note: harya- is not used of one's offspring. In MR:228, Tolkien notes that "no Elf would speak of possessing children; he would say: 'three children have been added unto me', or 'are with me', or 'are in my house'.") -3AR
POST (wooden) samna (þ) (Distinct from #samna "diphthong" in Tengwar spelling, as the latter is spelt with initial silmë, not súlë.) -STAB
POTTER cemnaro, centano -KEM, TAN
POUR ulya- (intransitive pa. t. ullë, transitive ulyanë; plural subjunctive ullier "should pour" is attested. These forms may obsolete ulu- and ulto- "pour" [transitive and intransitive] in LT1:270); POURING úlëa (flooding, flowing) -ULU, SD:310
POWDER (yellow) malo (pollen) -SMAL
PRAISE (vb) laita- (bless) (Imperative a laita and fut #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, "we shall praise them") PRAISE (noun) #laitalë (isolated from Erulaitalë "Praise of Eru") -LotR:989 cf Letters:308, UT:436
PRAYER #kyermë (isolated from Erukyermë, "prayer to Eru". A verbal stem #kyer- "pray" can also be isolated) -UT:436
PRECIOUS THING mírë (jewel, treasure, shining jewel) -MIR
PRECIPICE (seaward) ollo (cliff). (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) -LT1:252
PRESS sanga (crowd, throng) -STAG/Silm:438
PREVENT FROM COMING TO COMPLETION nuhta- (stunt, stop short, not allow to continue) -WJ:413
PRICK erca-, nasta- (sting); PRICKLE, SPINE erca -ERÉK, NAS
?PRIMARY (Tolkien's handwriting was illegible) *yessëa (corrected from the actual reading essea - see BEGINNING) -ESE
PRINCE cundu, haryon (heir); PRINCESS aranel -KUNDU, 3AR, UT:434
PRINCIPAL (prob. adj not noun) héra (chief) -KHER
PROCEED (in any direction) lelya- (pa.t. lendë) (go, travel) -WJ:363
PRODUCTION carmë (glossed "art" in UT:396, but cf. Oiencarmë Eruo "the One's perpetual production". Carmë is also translated "making".) -MR:329
PROFOUND tumna (low-lying, low, deep, dark or hidden) -LT1:271 cf. TUB
PROLONG taita- -TAY
PROMINENT minda (conspicuous) -MINI
PROMISE (solemn) vanda (oath, pledge) -UT:317
PROMONTORY (narrow) ne htë -UT:282
PROP tulco (support) -TULUK
PROPER vanima (fair, beautiful, right) -LT1:272
PROSPEROUS alya (rich, abundant, blessed); PROSPERITY autë (wealth, also adj: rich) -GALA, LT2:336
PROTECT varya-; PROTECTED varna (safe, secure) -BAR
PROVERBIAL DICTUM ("a saying, a current or proverbial dictum") eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, quotation, saying) -WJ:392
PROW OF A SHIP lango (broad sword) -LAG
P-SERIES parmatéma (labials) -LotR:1154
PUFF hwesta-; PUFF OF AIR hwesta (breath, breeze) -SWES
PURE poica -POY
PURSUE roita- -ROY1
PUT ASIDE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (leave out, exclude, abandon, forsake); PUT A STOP TO pusta- (stop, cease) -WJ:365, PUS
PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (corrected from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout) -LT:258
PUTRID saura (þ) (foul, evil-smelling) - in compounds #sauri-, see FOUL. -THUS

<Q>

QUANTITY (great) úvë (abundance) -UB
QUARREL costa- -KOT
QUEEN tári (gen tário is attested). LT1:260 has turinqui "queen", while LT1:273 gives vardi, but these are hardly valid words in mature Quenya. QUEEN OF STARS (Varda's title) Elentári (so in LotR and Silm; Etym has also Tinwetári, Tinwetar, Tinwerontar); QUEEN OF THE EARTH Kementári (a title of Yavanna) -TÂ/LT1:264/Nam, Silm:55/437/30
QUICK SHAKE rincë (flourish) -RIK
QUIET (noun) quildë (rest, hush) -GL:23
QUIVER vainolë -LT1:271
QUOTATION eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, proverbial dictum, saying) -WJ:392

<R>

RACE nórë (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, native land, family) -NÔ
RADAGAST Aiwendil ("Lover of Birds", his original Valinorean name, not an actual translation of "Radagast", which is either Adûnaic for "Tender of Beasts" or a Mannish name of uncertain meaning). -UT:393/417, cf. 390, 401
RADIANCE alcar, alcarë (brilliance, splendour), fairë (Note: this word has several other meanings - see DEATH, FREEDOM, PHANTOM), nalta (glittering reflection - alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) RADIANT alcarinqua (glorious) -AKLA-R, PHAY, PM:347, WJ:369 (where alcar, alkar is translated "splendour")
RAGE aha -LotR:1157
RAIN mistë (fine rain), rossë (fine rain, dew, spray), ucco; RAINBOW helyanwë (lit. "sky-bridge"), Ilweran, Ilweranta. (LT2 has iluquinga "sky-bow", but this was obsoleted toghether with ilu "sky"; see SKY.) -MIZD, ROS cf. Letters:282, GL:74, 3EL, LT1:256, LT2:348
RAISE orta- (lift up, rise) (pa.t. ortanë is attested; orta- probably obsoletes orto- in LT1:256), amu- -ORO, Nam, RGEO:67, LT2:335
RAPID larca, alarca -LAK
RAT *nyaro ("nyano" in LR:379 must be a misreading) -NYAD
RAVINE axa (narrow path), yáwë (cleft, gulf), falqua (cleft, mountain pass) -AK, LT2:341
RAY OF LIGHT alca; RAY OF THE SUN firin (the latter may not be a valid word in mature Quenya) -AKLA-R, LT2:341
"RAYMENT, VEILS" fana (pl fanar is attested. This word was used of the visible bodies in which the Valar presented themselves to incarnates.) -RGEO:74
RE- (prefix) en- (as in entulessë "return" and envinyatar "renewer", q.v. Also used on verbs: #enquat- "refill" [only fut. enquantuva is attested, see REFILL]. Before the consonants l, m, r, s, the prefix en- would be assimilated to *el-, *em-, *er-, and *es-, respectively. Very early [The Lost Tales] "Qenya" has an- instead of en- [see LT1:184].)
REACH *rahta- (strech out) (Corrected from the actual reading rakta; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) -LT1:335
REAL anwa (actual, true) -ANA2
REALM arda (region). This word means "any more or less bounded or defined place, a region" (WJ:402). Arda (with a capital A) was "the name given to our world or earth...within the immensity of Eä". -3AR, Letters:283
REAR tellë -TELES
RECALL #enyal- (inf. enyalië) -UT:302, 317
RECKON not-; *RECKONING #onótimë (isolated from Yénonótië *"reckoning of years"), *RECKONER Onótimo (the untranslated title of one Quennar, an expert of chronology) -NOT, MR:48-51
RECEIVE tuvu- (same as in utútvienyes "I have found it"? See FIND) -GL:71
RED carnë, aira ("ruddy, copper-coloured"), narwa ("fiery red", cf. nárë "flame"), nasar (adopted from Valarin; used in Vanyarin Quenya only); RED [HEAT?] (Tolkien's handwriting was illegible) yulmë (Note: a homonym means "drinking, carousal"). RED FLAME rúnya, WITH ADORNMENT OF RED JEWELS carnimírië (a pl form? Sg *carnimírëa? Letters:224 has carne- instead of carni-.) -KARÁN/Silm:429, GAY, NAR, WJ:399, YUL, Silm:437, LotR:505 cf. Letters:224
REED liscë (sedge) -LT2:335 (GL:34 also gives feng-, but some ending would be required)
REEK usquë -USUK
REFILL #enquat- (only fut. enquantuva is attested, but cf. quat- "fill" in WJ:392) -Nam
REFLECTION (glittering) nalta (radiance - alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -PM:347
REFUSE váquet- (forbid, say no) (1. pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given) avaquet- (forbid) (the pa.t. is no doubt *avaquentë; cf. quet- under SAY), ava- (say no). (Pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was "little used in ordinary language".) -WJ:370, KWET
REGION ména, arda (realm) -MEN, LotR:1157
REGULAR sanya (þ) (law-abiding, normal) -STAN
RELATE nyar- (tell); NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima -NAR2, WJ:370
RELEASE fainu- -LT2:250
REMAINS erin -LT1:269
REMOTE haira (far), eccaira, avaha ira -KHAYA
REND narci-; RENDING naraca (harsh, violent) -NÁRAK
RENEW #envinyata- (heal) (isolated from Envinyatar, see below. Past participle Envinyanta is attested, though it is translated "healed" rather than *"renewed".) RENEWER Envinyatar -MR:405, LotR:897
REPEAT tatya- (double); REPEATED vorima (continual) -TATA, BOR
REPOSE Estë (the name of a Valië; because of this name, estë fell out of use as a general word for "repose"). -WJ:403, 404
RESONANT (of strings) tunga (taut, tight) -TUG
REST serin ("I rest", 1. pers. aorist); REST (noun) sérë (repose, peace), quildë (quiet, hush); Estë (the name of a Valië; because of this name, estë fell out of use as a general word for "rest") (repose); TAKE A REST hauta-; RESTING senda (at peace) -SED, EZDÊ/WJ:404, GL:23, KHAW
RETURN (vb) pel- (revolve, go round), RETURN (noun) entulessë -PEL, UT:171, 434
REVERED The element #ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean "high (i.e., noble, revered)" -WJ:416
REVERSED nuquerna -LotR:1157
REVOLVE pel- (return, go round) -PEL
RICH alya (prosperous, abundant, blessed), autë (also as noun: prosperity, wealth) herenya (wealthy, fortunate, blessed) -GALA, LT2:335, KHER
RIDER roquen (horseman, knight) -WJ:372, UT:282
RIGHT téra (straight), vanima (fair, proper, beautiful). RIGHT (direction) forya, fortë (Note: the latter word also means "north"); RIGHTHANDED formaitë (dexterous) -TE3, LT1:272, PHOR
RIME ringwë (frost) -LT1:255
RING #corma (isolated from cormacolindor "Ring-bearers"); RING-DAY Cormarë (Yavannië 30th, a festival in honour of Frodo Baggins; this was his birthday); RING-WRAITHS Úlairi (Nazgûl) (pl; sg #Úlairë? Note that Úlairi is not a literal translation of "ring-wraiths"; the prefix ú- may mean "un-" with evil connotation; the rest of the word is obscure. Lairë "summer" or "poem" can hardly have anything to do with #lairi. The syllable úl- may also have something to do with the Black Speech word gûl, wraith.) -LotR:989 cf. Letters:308, LotR.1146, Silm:362, 417
RINGING SOUND láma (echo - so in Etym, but see SOUND) -LAM
RISE orta- (pa.t. ortanë is attested; orta- obsoletes oro- in LT1:256) (lift up, raise); RISING (noun) órë (Note: a homonym means "heart, inner mind"; but cf. MIGHTY-RISING); SUNRISE anarórë (LT1:264 has orontë, oronto, but these words may not be valid in mature Quenya). -ORO, LT1:256, Nam/RGEO:67
RIVER sírë (stream) (pl. probably *sírer not *síri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver. For "river" LT1:248/262 also gives nen, while LT1:260 gives celusindi; LT1:265 gives sindi; these may not be valid words in mature Quenya). RIVULET siril; MOUTH OF RIVER etsir -SIR, ET
ROAD tëa (straight line), mallë (pl. maller not *malli), ROAD IN SEA londë (entrance to harbour, translated "haven" in Alqualondë Haven of the Swans, UT:417), tië (path, course, direction, way), #vanda (isolated form Qualvanda "Road of Death" in LT1:264; cf. vand- "way, path" on the same page - but since vanda means "oath" in a later source [UT:317], this word may be obsolete) -TEÑ, LR:47, LOD, TE3/RGEO:67, LT1:264
ROARING (adj) rávëa; ROARING NOISE rávë (pl. probably *ráver not *rávi, compare the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver). -MC:223 cf. 215
ROBE vaima -LT1:271
ROCKHEWN HALL hróta (dwelling underground, artificial cave) -PM:365
ROOF (vb) tópa-; ROOF (noun) tópa; HAVING A ROOF telda; "DOWN-ROOF" (cover) untúpa- -TOP, LT2:348, RGEO:67/Nam
ROOM sambë (þ) (chamber) -STAB
ROOT, ROOTWORD sundo (pl #sundar in Tarmasundar "Roots of the Pillar" in UT:166, but this may be a different word) (base), talma (foundation, base), sulca (esp. edible root) -SUD, TAL, SÚLUK
ROUND corna (globed), corima; ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield), GO ROUND pel- (return, revolve) -KOR, LT1:257, 269, PEL
ROW téma (series, line) (pl témar is attested) -TEÑ, LotR:1153
ROYAL #arna (isolated from Arnanor, Arnanórë, "royal land", Arnor); ROYALIST arandil (king's friend) -Letters:428, 386
RUDDY aira (red, copper-coloured), roina -GAY, ROY
RUINOUS atalantëa (pl. atalantië is attested) -MC:222, 223
RULE (vb) heru- (Note: heru is also the noun "lord"). LT1:273 has vard- "rule, govern", but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya. RULE (noun) sanyë (þ) (law), axan (commandment, law) -LT1:272, STAN, WJ:399
RULER cáno, cánu (see COMMANDER) (governor, chieftain, commander), #tur (as in Minyatur, "first Ruler") (lord) -UT:400, 466
RUN ON, RUN SMOOTHLY nornoro- -LT1:263
RUNE certa (pl certar is attested. This word occurred in Exilic Quenya only, adopted and adapted from Sindarin certh. Tolkien notes that if inherited, the form would have had the form *cirtë.) -WJ:396, LotR:1151
RUSHING (adjectival) rimpa (flying), arauca (swift); RUSHING (noun) ormë (wrath, violence, haste) -KHOR, LT2:347, GOR
RUSTLE escë (noise of leaves) -EZGE

<S>

SAFE varna (protected, secure). (GL:58 has moina "safe, secure", but in mature Quenya moina means "dear, familiar", and the former moina seems to have become muina "hidden, secret".) SAFE KEEPING mando (custody) -BAR, MR:350
SAGA nyárë, nyarna (tale, history) -NAR2
SAGACIOUS finwa -LT1:253
SAIL #cir- (only attested as a continuative stem: círa). LT1:273 has wili- "sail, float, fly", but see FLY. -MC:221
SAILOR ciryaquen (shipman) -WJ:372
SAKALTHÔR Falassion -UT:223
SALVE lipsa -LIP
SANCTUARY yána (holy place) -YAN
SAND litsë -LIT
SARUMAN Curumo (= Sindarin Curunír) -UT:393, 401, 427
SATURN Lumbar -WJ:xi/Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55
SAURON (The Abhorred) Sauron (þ), other names Súro, Sauro (all S) -THUS
SAVIOUR sáro (þ) (isolated from the word Nanisáro "saviour of the Dani") -LR:188
SAY quet- (pa.t. quentë) (speak, talk), equë (the latter word "has no tense forms...being mostly used only before either a proper name...or a full independent pronoun, in the senses say / says or said. A quotation then follows, either direct, or less usually indirect after a 'that'-construction (...) Affixes appear in equen 'said I', eques 'said he / she' ." (WJ:392, 415) Cf. also SAY NO váquet- (forbid, refuse) (1. pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given), ava- (refuse) (pa.t. avanë is given; this verb was "little used in ordinary language"). NOT TO BE SAID, THAT MUST NOT BE SAID avaquétima. SAYING eques (pl. equessi) (dictum, proverbial dictum, quotation) -Silm:436, WJ:370, LT2:348, WJ:392
SCHOLAR istyar (learned man) -IS
SCOOP OUT calpa- (draw out, bale out) -KALPA
SCORN yaiwë (mocking) -YAY
SCREEN (vb) telta- (canopy, ov ershadow), SCREEN FROM LIGHT halya- (veil, conceal) -SKAL, TEL
SEA ëar, airë (said to apply to "inner seas of Middle-earth" in Etym, but Tolkien later used these words of the ocean). LT2:347 also gives Rása "the Sea". SEA-DWELLING Eämbar (name of a ship), SEA-SPIRIT falmar/falmarin (pl. falmarindi) (nymph), SEA-ELF Teler (Telellië, Telelli "Teler-folk", adj Telerin "Telerian"), SEAWEED ëaruilë (also simply uilë, see PLANT), CHILD OF THE SEA oar (merchild), SEAWARD PRECIPICE ollo (cliff). (The alternative form oldó may be archaic Quenya.) -AYAR/Letters:386/RGEO:73, UT:430, LT2:347, TELES, LT1:263, LT1:252
SECOND #tatya (cf. Tatyar, "the Seconds", the Second Clan of the Elves), neuna; THE SECOND Atani (sg Atan - an Elvish name of Men, later only used of Men of the Three Houses of the Edain.) -WJ:420, NDEW, WJ:403
SECRET (adj) muina (hidden), nulla, nulda, lomba; SECRET (noun) fólë (secrecy); SECRECY muilë, fólë (secret), SECRETIVE fólima -MUY, DUL, LT1:255, LT2:340
SECURE varna (protected, safe), SECURITY varnassë. (GL:58 has moina "safe, secure", but in mature Quenya moina means "dear, familiar", and the former moina seems to have become muina "hidden, secret".) -BAR
SEDGE liscë (reed) -LT2:335
SEE cen- (behold) (future tense cenuva is attested), véla-; SEE! ela (lo! look!) (directing sight to an actually visible object) -MC:222, Arct, WJ:362 cf. 360
SEED erdë (germ. Note: a homonym means "person".) -ERÉD
SEIZE mapa- (grasp) This word was struck out in one of Tolkien's earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. -MAP, LT2:339
SELF-NAME #cilmessë (only pl. cilmessi is attested, said to mean more literally "names of personal choice": #cilmë "choice" + essi "names". PM:339 explains that "some among the exiles gave themselves names, as disguises or in reference to their own deeds and personal history: such names were called kilmessi 'self-names'.")
SEND FLYING horta- (speed, urge) -KHOR
SEND FOR tulta- (fetch, summon) -TUL
SENTENCE quentelë -LT2:348
SEPTEMBER Yavannië -LotR:1144/1146/Silm:439
SERIES téma (pl. témar is attested) (row, line) -TEÑ, LotR:1153
SERPENT lókë (snake, dragon; "so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]", LT2:85). The word foalókë is said to be a "name of a serpent that guarded a treasure". The word is not capitalized, so this "name" must be a common noun and not a proper name. -LOK, LT2:340
SERVANT -(n)dur (final element in compounds, e.g. arandur "king's servant, minister, steward". When the first part of the compound ends in l, n, or r, the n of -ndur is left out). -Letters:386
SET panya- (fix), SET (of Sun or Moon) núta- (sink, stoop), SET UP tulca- (fix, establish; Note: there is a homonym meaning "firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable".) -PAN, NDÛ, LT1:270 cf. TULUK
SETTLED - be settled: mar- (abide, be fixed) -UT:317
SEVEN otso -OT
SHADE lëo (= shadow cast by an object), laimë, lómin (shadow); SHADES OF NIGHT lómë (Night, night-time, dusk, gloom, twilight), SHADY halda (veiled, hidden, shadowed), laira -DAY, LT1:255, DO3
SHADOW lëo ( =shadow cast by an object) (shade), lómin (shade), lumbulë (=[heavy] shadow), fuinë, huinë (= deep shadow) (gloom, darkness), ungo (=dark shadow) (cloud), mordo, lumbë (gloom). "The Shadow" meaning Sauron should probably be Huinë, since this word is associated with his coming to Númenor in LR:47 and SD:246/310. SHADOWED halda (veiled, hidden, shady). -DAY, LT1:255, Nam/RGEO:67, PHUY, UÑG, MOR, LUM, SKAL
SHAGGY aulë (May have been obsoleted by the later [TLT] word aulë "invention".) -LT1:249
SHAKE (quick) rincë (flourish) -RIK
SHAPE (vb) canta-, venië (infinitive? Stem #ven-?) (cut); SHAPE (noun) venwë (cut), SHAPED canta (also as quasi-suffix, e.g. lassecanta "leaf-shaped"); SHAPED STONE ambal (flag) -KAT, LT1:254, MBAL
SHARE hyanda (blade) -LT2:342
SHARP laicë, maica (piercing), aica (fell, terrible, dire; this gloss "sharp" is isolated from one translation of Aicanáro:) SHARP-FLAME Aicanáro "Fell Fire, Aegnor" (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár) -LAIK, Silm:434, AYAK, MR:323
SHARP-PROWED SHIP cirya (see SHIP) -Silm:433 (where the spelling círya occurs, but all other sources have cirya with a short i, so círya is likely an error by Christopher Tolkien).
SHATTERED rúcina (confused, disordered) -MC:223
SHEATH vainë -LT1:271
SHEEN, THE Isil (Moon) -THIL
SHEEP máma (Unlike English "sheep", this word probably has a distinct plural *mámar.) -WJ:395
SHELL hyalma (conch, horn of Ulmo) -SYAL
SHEPERD mavor (GL:58 gives mavar); SHEPERDESS emerwen -LT1:268, UT:434
SHIELD turma; BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill) -TURÚM, LT1:269
SHIFT (of large and heavy things:) rúma- (part. rúmala is attested) (heave, move) -MC:223, 222
SHINE cala- (fut. caluva is attested), calta-; SHINE WHITE sil- (present tense síla, aorist sg. silë, aorist pl. silir, and freq. sisíla- are attested), ninquita-; SHINING WHITE (adj) silma (silver) -LT1:254, UT:22 cf. 51, KAL, MC:223, NIK-W, SIL/LotR:94/The Return of the Shadow:324
SHINGLE sarnië (pebble-bank) -UT:463
SHIP cirya (defined as "sharp-prowed ship" in Silm:433; dual ciriat [read *ciryat?] is attested in Letters:427; all numbers and cases except plural possessive *ciryaiva are attested in the Plotz letter. In Silm:433, the spelling círya occurs, but all other sources have cirya with a short i, so círya is likely an error by Christopher Tolkien); luntë (boat); SHIPMAN ciryaquen (sailor) -KIR, LT1:249/LUT, WJ:318
SHORE falas (falass-), falassë (beach, line of surf); hyapat; SHORE-PIPER, SHORELAND PIPER Solosimpë (pl Solosimpi is attested) -LT1:253, Silm:431, SKYAP, LT1:251, 265
SHORT sinta (þ); SHORT STABBING SWORD ecet (broad-bladed sword) -STINTÂ, UT:284
SHOULDER róma (Note: a homonym means "horn" or "trumpet-sound, loud sound") See also BACK. -LT2:335
SHOUT (vb) rama-; SHOUT (noun) rambë, SHOUT OF TRIUMPH yello (call), SHOUTER ramandor (but in mature Quenya this would probably be a pl; sg *ramando) -LT1:259, GYEL
SHOW tana- (indicate) (Note: tana also means "that".) -MR:385
SICKLE circa; SICKLE OF THE VALAR Valacirca (= the Great Bear, the Plough, the Big Dipper or the Wain), also called Otselen = The Seven Stars. -KIRIK, OT
SICK(LY) laiwa (ill), caimassë, caimassëa (bedridden), engwa (cf. Engwar "The Sickly", an Elvish name for Men); SICKNESS quámë, lívë, caila (lying in bed) -SLIW, KAY, GENG-WÂ, Silm:122, KWAM
SIGH see EXPIRE. Cf. also one of Nienna's titles: Núri, she who sighs. -LT1:263 cf. 66.
SIGN tanna, taina; tengwë (indication, token, writing - pl tengwi is attested), tehta (mark [in writing], diacritic) (In LotR:1155, this word is applied to the supralinear vowel-signs of Fëanorian writing, and pl tehtar is attested.) SYSTEM OR CODE OF SIGNS tengwesta (grammar) -MR:385, WJ:394, 395, TEK
SIGNIFER Tancol ("the significant Star", probably = Venus)
SILVER telpë, telep- (tyelpë, tyelep- was the original form of the word in Noldorin Quenya, but "the form telpe became usual, through the influence of Telerin; for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" [UT:266]. However, in Letters:426 it is stated that "the form tyelpë remained in Quenya" and was not wholly displaced by telpë. LT1:268 has telpë = telempë.) Cf. also ilsa (a "mystic name" of silver), +silmë (also meaning light of Silpion, starlight). SILVER (prob. adj) tinda (glinting), OF SILVER telepsa, telpina, telemna. SILVER LIGHT istel, istil ("applied by the Ilkorins to starlight, probably a Q[uenya] form learned from Melian"). SILVER GLINT nillë (a star on Varda's simulacrum covering Valinor. Spelt ñillë, i.e., ngillë, in MR:388, but initial ng had become n in Third Age pronunciation, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But is this word is written in Tengwar, the letter noldo, not númen, should be used to transcribe the initial n.) -Silm:429, KYELEP, LT1:255, SIL, TIN, MR:388
SINEW tuo (muscle) -TUG
SING lirin ("I sing", 1. pers. aorist) (chant); SINGER nyello, lindo (singing bird); SINGERS Lindar (a name of the Teleri); SINGING lindë (air, tune, song), SINGING CLUSTER Lindeloktë (labernum). This is the form given in LT1:258; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya: read *Lindelohtë? -GLIR, NYEL, LIN2, WJ:418, Silm:431, LT1:258
SINGLE erya (sole), SINGLY eressë (only, alone, also as noun: solitude) -ERE, LT1:269
SINGULARITY erdë (used in the sense "person as a whole", body and soul. Note: a homonym means "seed, germ".) -MR:216
SINK (of Sun and Moon) núta- (set) -NDÛ
SIP salpa- (lick up, sup) -SÁLAP
SIRIUS Niellúnë, Nierninwa -LT1:262
SISTER seler (þ) (pl. selli), onómë, onónë; SISTER (usually not of bloodkinship) osellë (þ) (associate) -THEL, NÔ
SIT #hára- (only pl hárar "are sitting" is attested. In Etym, "sit" is ham-) -KHAM, UT:317, KHAM
SIX enquë -ÉNEK
SKIES fanyarë (upper airs and clouds) -MC:223
SKILL curu; SKILLED maitë (pl. maisi) (handy), BE SKILLED IN DEALING WITH hanya- (understand, know about) -Silm:429, MA3, KHAN
SKIN helma (fell) (parma in LT2:346 is obsolete; see BARK) -SKEL
SKY vilya (older [MET] wilya) (air), helwa, ilwë (heavens), telimbo (canopy), taimë, taimië. (LT2:348 gives ilu, but the meaning of this word was later changed - Tolkien decided that Ilúvatar means "All-Father", not "Sky-Father" as he originally thought.) "SKY-BRIDGE" (i.e., rainbow) helyanwë -LotR:1157, 3EL, LT1:255, LT2:348, LT1:268
SLACKEN lehta-, leuca- (loose) (Note: leuca is also a noun meaning "snake". Anyway, leuca- in Etym is likely a misreading for *lenca-. The certain form lehta- is to be preferred.) -LEK
SLASH cirissë (gash) -KIRIS
SLAVE mól (thrall) -MÔ
SLAY mac- -LT1:259
SLEEP (noun) fúmë. (This word points to *fum- as the stem of the verb "to sleep".) FLOWER OF SLEEP - see POPPY. -LT1:253
SLENDER nindë, teren, terenë -NIN-DI, TER
SLIDE DOWN talta- (slip, collapse) -MC:223
SLIP talta- (slide down, collapse) -MC:223
SLOPE (vb) talta-; SLOPE (noun) pendë (downslope, declivity), ampendë (upward slope), SLOPING DOWN penda (inclined) -PEN
SLOW lenca -LT2:341
SLUMBER (vb) lor-, muru-, SLUMBER (noun) lórë, murmë, SLUMBROUS lorda (drowsy), murmëa -LT1:259, LOS, LT1:259, 260
*SMALL pitya (never translated, but Pitya-naucor is glossed "petty-dwarves", and pica "small spot" must be derived from the same root.) Cf. also nauca, an adjective "especially applied to things that though in themselves full-grown were smaller or shorter than their kind, and were hard, twisted, or ill-shapen." LT1:256 has an adjective inya "small", but this is probably not a valid word in mature Quenya (in that language *inya may mean "my, mine".) -PIK, WJ:389, 413
SMALL STONE sar (pl. sardi) -SAR
SMEARED púrëa (discoloured) -MC:223
SMITH tano (craftsman), SMITH OF THE WOR LD Talca Marwa (a title of Aulë) -TAN, LT1:266
SMOOTH pasta -PATH
SMOULDERING HEAT yulmë (red [?heat] - Tolkien's handwriting was illegible); SMOULDERING WOOD yúla (ember) -YUL
SNAKE ango (pl. angwi), leuca, lókë (serpent, dragon; "so do the Eldar name the worms of Melko[r]", LT2:85) -ANGWA, LotR:1149, LT2:340
SNARE neuma -SNEW
SNARL yarra (growl) -MC:223
SNOUT mundo (nose, cape) -MBUD
SNOW lossë (spesifically "fallen snow", also adjective "snow-white"; +olos, +olossë. Etym also gives niquë, but this word is obsoleted by a statement in WJ:417: "nique does not refer to snow, but to cold". This statement may obsolete niquetil "snowcap" in LT1:266. Is niquis "snow" from the same source a valid word? GL:35 has fáwë "snow" and fauta "it snows".) LIGHT SNOW is, SNOW-WHITE lossë (which may also be the noun "snow"), SNOWDROP nieninquë (lit. "white tear") -RGEO:69, GOLÓS, NIK-W-, NEI, LT1:256, LT1:262/266
SOAP lipsa -LIB1
SOFT maxa (pliant), moica -MASAG, GL:58
SOIL 1. (noun) kemen (earth), 2. (vb) vahta- (stain), SOILED vára (dirty) -LT1:257, WA3
SOLE erya (single), SOLITUDE eressë (also as adverb: single, only, alone) -ERE cf. LT1:269
SOLE OF FOOT tallúnë (the form talas in LT2 is probably obsolete) -RUN, LT2:347
SOLEMN PROMISE vanda (oath, pledge) -UT:317
SOLITARY erda (deserted) -LT1:269
SOLITUDE eressë (also as adverb: singly, only, alone) -ERE, LT1:269
SOMBRE morna (black, gloomy, dark) -MOR
SON yondo (male descendant), (suffix:) -ion, e.g. Finwion "son of Finwë". Cf. also the vocative yonya *"my son", a contraction of *yondonya. (The forms , vondo "son" in LT2 are certainly obsolete, as are the notions that yondo meant "(great) grandson" and that yô-, yond- "son" was used only in poetry. But LT2 does confirm that -ion was "very common...in patronymics".) SON OF THE DARK (= Morgoth) morion YO, MR:217, LR:61, LT2:336, 344, LT1:260 cf. FS
SONG lindë (air, tune, singing), #lírë (only attested in the instrumental case: lírinen; pl. probably *lírer not *líri, compare the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl. tyáver), lirilla (lay). See also MUSIC. -GLIN, Nam, LT1:258
SOON rato -Arct
SOPE lipsa -LIB
SORROW nyérë (grief). Pl. probably *nyérer not *nyéri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver. -GL:60
SOUL fëa (spirit; pl fëar is attested. In MR:330, Tolkien notes that fëa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to...'soul'.") -MR:349, 218, cf. Silm:431
SOUND lamma (= sound in general?), #hlon (only pl. hloni is attested; the word is used of the sounds of a language), róma (= loud sound, trumpet-sound. Note: róma also means "shoulder"), láma (according to Etym = "ringing sound, echo", but see below); SOUND-TASTE lámatyávë (pl. lámatyáver is attested), i.e., "individual pleasure in the sounds and forms of words". Tolkien seems undecided about the exact meaning of láma. Etym gives "ringing sound, echo"; in WJ:416 it is said that the stem LAMA refers "especially to vocal sounds, but was applied only to those that were confused or inarticulate. It was generally used to describe the various cries of beasts." But the word lámatyávë "sound-taste", by which an Elf chose or made a name for him/herself [see NAME-CHOOSING], seems to imply that láma can also be used of articulated speech. -LAM, WJ:394, ROM, MR:215, 216
SOUTH hyarmen (LT2:248 also gives Sahóra, but this is hardly a valid word in mature Quenya); SOUTHERN hyarmenya, "SOUTH-VICTOR" Hyarmendacil (one of the Kings of Gondor), SOUTHEASTLANDS Hyarrostar, SOUTHWESTLANDS Hyarnustar (regions in Númenor) -KHYAR/LotR:1157, LotR:1075/1082, UT:165, 446
SOW rerin ("I sow", 1. person aorist), pa.t. rendë -RED
SPARK - make/cause to spark: tinta- (kindle). SPARK (noun) tinwë (sparkle). -TIN, Silm:438
SPARKLE (vb) tintina- (pl. tintinar is attested), MAKE TO SPARKLE tinta- (kindle); SPARKLE, SPARK (noun) tinwë (often = "star") -TIN, Silm:438
SPEAK quet- (pa.t. quentë) (say, talk) -LT2:348
SPEAR ehtë, ecco; SPEAR-HEAD nehtë (gore, wedge, narrow promontory), nasta (gore, point, triangle), SPEARMAN ehtyar -EK, SNAS, UT:282
SPECIES nostalë (kind) -LT1:272
SPEECH #questa (isolated from tarquesta "high speech") -TÂ
SPEED (vb) horta- (urge, send flying), SPEEDING hortalë (urging) -KHOR
SPELLING tencelë (writing system) -TEK
SPIDER liantë (so in Etym; in LT1:271, liantë is glossed "tendril"); SPIDER FILAMENT lia (Note: lia- is also the verb "twine"); SPIDER'S WEB ungwë (but in LT1:271, ungwë is glossed "spider") -SLIG, LotR:1157
SPIKE nassë (thorn), tinda; ROW OF SPIKES (or teeth) carcassë, carcaras -NAS, LT1:258, LT2:344
SPINDRIFT wingë (wingi-) (crest [of wave], foam) -LT1:273 cf. WIG
SPIRANT CONSONANT surya -SUS
SPIRIT fëa (= the spirit or "soul" of an incarnate, normally housed in a body; pl fëar is attested), ëala ("being", pl. ëalar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs), súlë (þ) (earlier [MET] thúlë, Súlë) , manu (= departed spirit; LT1:260 has mánë), fairë (= spirit in general, as opposed to matter, or a phantom or disembodied spirit, when seen as a pale shape. Pl. fairi is attested), vilissë. A person's "spirit" meaning his or her general personality and attitude may be rendered by the word órë, in LotR defined as "heart, inner mind" (q.v.), cf. PM:337, where it is said that "there dwelt in her [Galadriel] the noble and generous spirit (órë) of the Vanyar". FIELD-SPIRIT Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested. The Nermir are "fays of the meads".) -MR:349, 218, 165; cf. Silm:431; LotR:1157, MAN, MC:223, MR:349, GL:23, LT1:260
SPIT piuta -PIW
SPLIT sanca (þ) (cleft) -STAK
SPONGE hwan (pl. hwandi) (fungus) -SWAD
SPORT tyalië (game, play) -TYAL
SPOT men (place - Tolkien may have rejected this word, see PLACE), SMALL SPOT pica (dot) -MEN, PIK
SPRAY (of fall or fountain) rossë (fine rain, dew) -Letters:282 cf. ROS
SPREAD palu-, palya- (open wide, extend, expand) -PAL
SPRING (vb) tuia- (sprout); SPRING (noun) ehtelë (fountain, issue of water), SPRING OF WATER capalinda, WATER FALLING OUT SWIFTLY FROM A ROCKY SPRING celussë (freshlet), SPRING-TIME tuilë (this word literally means "budding, also collectively - buds, new shoots, fresh green" [LT1:269]. Also used = dayspring, early morn. In the Calendar of Imladris, tuilë was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Beside tuilë, LT1:269 also has tuiliérë.) FIRST BEGINNING OF SPRING coirë ("stirring", according to the Calendar of Imladris a period of 54 days in early spring); "SPRING-SINGER" (i.e., swallow) tuilindo -TUY/LotR 1141, 1145, KEL, UT:426, LT1:260, Silm:429, LT2:338/LT1:269
SPROUT (vb) tuia (spring), *lohta- (corrected from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (put forth leaves or flowers); SPROUT (noun) tuima (bud) -TUY, LT:258
SQUAT haca- -GL:47
STABBING SWORD (short) ecet (broad-bladed sword) -UT:284/432
STAFF - LT1:264 has vandl, but the cluster ndl cannot occur in mature Quenya. Read *vandel?
STAIN (vb) vahta-, STAIN (noun) vaxë -WA3
STAND ASIDE! heca! (be gone!). Also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you stand aside!" -WJ:364
STANDARD tulwë (standard, pole) -LT1:270
STAR elen (normal pl eleni, but occasionally +eldi in verse; allative elenna and pl ablative elenillor are attested), +él (pl. éli is mentioned), tinwë (properly = sparkle), ílë. (Note: in Etym elen is said to be poetic, but Tolkien later concluded that elen was "the normal word for a star on the actual firmanent", the poetic word being él instead. According to MR:388, a tinwë was one of the "apparent stars" on Varda's simulacrum covering Valinor, also called nillë or "silver glint". Etym mentions the words ellen and elena without glossing them, but according to Silm:431 elena is an adjective meaning "of the stars".) TWINKLING STAR tingilya, tingilindë, HAVING MANY STARS lintitinwë; STARLIKE elvëa (pl. elvië is attested); STARWARDS elenna (Elenna or Elennanórë, "the land named Starwards", a name of Númenor); STARLIGHT silmë (light of Silpion); STARCROWNED, CROWNED WITH STARS (a name of Taniquetil) Elerrína (so in Silm:42; Etym has Elerína); STAR-QUEEN (=Varda) Elentári; STARLIT DUSK, STARRY TWILIGHT tindómë. See also *STELLAR. -EL, Silm:313, MC:222 cf. 215, TIN, WJ:362, UT:317, LotR:1157, LT1:269, MC:223, Silm:42, DOMO, Silm:438
STATUTE namna -MR:258
STEADFAST tulca (firm, strong, immoveable; Note: there is a homonym meaning "fix, set up, establish"), vórima, voronda ("steadfast in allegiance, in keeping oath or promise, faithful"). -TULUK cf. LT1:270, UT:317
STEADY tulunca (firm) -LT1:270
STEEL erë, eren (meaning either iron or steel), yaisa -LT1:252, GL:37
STEEP aiqua, oronta -AYAK, LT1:256
*STELLAR elenya (no gloss is actually given; the word is simply defined as "an adjective referring to stars". There are also the adjectives elda and elena, translated "of the stars". But in normal Quenya, elda primarily means "Elf", pl. Eldar. Use elenya or elena.) -WJ:362, Silm:431
STEM telco (leg) -LotR:1154
STEWARD arandur (king's servant, minister) -Letters:386, UT:313
STICK TO himya- (cleave to, abide by), STICKING himba (adhering) -KHIM
STIFF norna (tough), tarya; STIFF, DRY GRASS sara (þ) (bent) -WJ:413, TÁRAG, STAR
STILL (= *"yet, despite that", not in the sense "unmoving":) er (only, one, alone, but, still) -LT1:269
STING nasta- (prick) -NAS
STINK yolo- -GL:41
STIRRING coirë (according to the Calendar of Imladris a period of 54 days in early spring)
-LotR:1141, 1142
STONE ondo (defined as stone "as a material" in Etym, but used of natural rocks in MC:222: ondolissë mornë, *"upon dark rocks". LT1 and LT2 has simply on, ondo "stone, a stone"), sar (sard-) (= small stone); OF STONE sarna. STONE SONG Ondolindë (Gondolin). See also ELFSTONE, FLINTSTONE. -GONOD (see GOND), Silm:431, LT1:254/LT2:342, SAR, Silm:415
STOOP núta- (sink, set [of Sun and Moon]) -LT1:263 cf. NDÛ
STOP hauta- (take a rest, cease), pusta- (put a stop to, but also intr: cease), tápë (3 pers sg pres; pa.t. tampë is given) (block), STOP SHORT nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, not allow to continue). FULL STOP ("in punctuation" - in Fëanorian writing probably the symbol :) putta, pusta; STOPPED CONSONANT (i.e., plosive consonant?) punta; STOPPER tampa -KHAW, PUS, TAP, WJ:413
STORM raumo (glossed "[noise of a] storm" in MC:223)
STRAIGHT téra (right), lenwa (long, thin, narrow); STRAIGHT LINE tëa (road) -TE3, TEÑ, LT2:341
STRAP latta (Note: a homonym means "hole, pit") -LATH
STRAY ranya-; STRAYING (noun) ránë (wandering) (pl. probably *ráner not *ráni; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl tyáver.) -RAN
STREAM (vb) celu- ("streem out swiftly"; there is also a noun celu "stream"), STREAM (noun) celumë (flow, flowing, flood, tide), celu, sírë (river); STREAM IN THE WIND hlapu- (fly in the wind; part. hlápula is attested) -UT:446, LT1:265, MC:223, 222/LT1:257
STRECH lenu-; STRETCH OUT *rahta- (reach) (Corrected from the actual reading rakta; Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) -LT1:341, 335
STREET mallë -MBAL, LT1:263
STRENGTH (physical) tuo -TUG
STRIDER Telcontar -MR:897
STRIPPED BARE helda (naked) -SKEL
STROKE ("of pen of brush ['] when not used as long mark") tecco -TEK
STRONG tulca (firm, immoveable, steadfast. Note: there is a homonym meaning "fix, set up, establish"), STRONG (physically) polda (burley), STRONG PLACE sarnë -TULUK, POL, SAR
STUNT nuhta- ("prevent from coming to completion, stop short, not allow to continue" -WJ:413
SUBLIME, THE Varda (this word should probably not be used as a normal adjective. It is also translated the Lofty.) -WJ:402
SUCCESSOR neuro (follower) -NDEW
SUFFICE farya- (pa.t. farnë) (Note: #farnë also means "dwelling"); SUFFICIENCY fárë (plenitude, all that is wanted), SUFFICIENT farëa (enough) -PHAR
SUFFOCATE quoro- (choke) -LT1:264
SUMMER lairë (Note: a homonym means "poem". In the Calendar of Imladris, lairë was a precisely defined period of 72 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), saiwen (cf. saiwa "hot".) "EVER-SUMMER" oiolairë, "SUMMER-SNOW-WHITE" lairelossë (evergreen trees brought to Númenor by the Eldar) -LotR:1141, 1145, Letters:282, LT1:265, UT:167, 458, UT:167, 449
SUMMIT - LT1:256 gives ormë "crest, summit", but in mature Quenya ormë means "wrath, haste, violence, rushing".
SUMMON tulta- (send for, fetch), yal- (dative infinitive #yalien is attested in enyalien "for the re-calling"). -TUL, UT:317
SUN Anar, Úrin (Úrind-) (the latter was a "name of the Sun"; in LT1:271 úrin is glossed "blazing hot", and the word for "Sun" is Úr ["Ûr"] or Úri, Úrinci, Urwen.The stem Úrin is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) Naira ("the heart of flame"), Calavénë, Calaventë (another names for the Sun). SUNLIGHT árë (older [MET] ázë); SUNRISE anarórë, ambaron/Ambarónë (uprising, Orient) (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR), rómen (glossed "uprising, sunrise, east" in Silm:437, but the normal meaning of the word is always "east"). SUNSET andúnë (west, evening), núro. (Amuntë in LT2 is certainly obsolete); RAY OF THE SUN firin (the latter may not be a valid word in mature Quenya) -ANÁR, UR, LotR:1157, LotR:254, ORO, AM, LotR:490, NDU, MR:198, Silm:428, LT2:335, 341
SOUP sulpa -LT1:266
STUDY (long) nólë (wisdom, lore, knowledge). (In Etym this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -ÑGOL, Silm:432
SUP salpa- (so in Etym; "take a sup of" in LT1:266) (sip, lick up) -SÁLAP, LT1:266
SUPPORT (noun) tulto (prop) -TULUK
SUPPOSE intya-; SUPPOSITION intya (guess, idea) -INK
SUPREME The Supreme Aratar (pl; sg #Arata). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered "High Ones, Exalted Ones" -Silm 32/381, WJ:402
SURE tanca (firm, fixed) -TAK
SURF solor, solossë (surge). LINE OF SURF falassë (beach, shore) -SOL, LT1:266, Silm:431
SURFACE palúrë (bosom, bosom of Earth - Tolkien equated palúrë with the Old English word folde), palmë -PAL
SURGE (noun) solossë (surf) -LT1:266
SWALLOW tuilindo (lit. "spring-singer"). -TUY/LIN2/LT1:269/LT2:338
SWAN alqua; HAVEN OF THE SWANS Alqualondë -ÁLAK/Silm:427/LT1:249, LT2:335 (LT1:249 also has alquë), UT:417
SWARD palis (lawn) -LT1:264
SWART varnë (varni-) (brown, dark brown) The form varni- is evidently used in compounds. -BARÁN
SWELL tiuya- (grow fat) -TIW
SWIFT #linta (only pl lintë is attested), tyelca (agile, hasty), larca, alarca (rapid), arauca (rushing) -Nam, KYELEK, LAK, LT2:347
SWIRL hwinya- (eddy, gyrate) -SWIN
SWORD macil; BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of a ship), LARGE SWORD falquan; SHORT STABBING SWORD, BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet, SWORD BLADE +russë (corruscation) -MAK/LT1:259, LAG, LT2:341, UT:284/432, RUS
SWORN BROTHER otorno (associate) -TOR
SYRUP pirya- (juice) -PIS

<T>

TALE nyárë (saga, history), nyarna (saga) -NAR2
TALK quet- (pa.t. quentë) (say, speak) -LT2:348
TALL halla, tunda (Note: the latter has a homonym meaning "kindle"), tára (high) -LotR:1157, TUN, WJ:417
TANGLE fasta- -PHAS
TAP tamin ("I tap", 1. pers. aorist) (pa.t. tamnë) -TAM
TAPER lícuma (candle) -MC:223
TARN moilë -LT2:349
TASSEL fas, fatsë -GL:34
TASTE (vb) tyavin ("I taste", 1. pers. aorist); TASTE (noun) tyávë (pl. tyáver is attested in the compound lámatyáver "sound-tastes"; see SOUND-TASTE.) -KYAB, MR:215, 216
TAUT tunga (tight, [of strings:] resonant) -TUG
TEAR nírë, nië -NEI, LT1:262
TELL nyarin ("I tell", 1. pers. aorist) (relate); NOT TO BE TOLD OR RELATED avanyárima -NAR2, WJ:370
TEMPLE corda -LT1:257
TEN cainen -KAYAN, KAYAR
TENDRIL liantë (but in Etym, this word is glossed "spider", q.v.) -LT1:271
TERRIBLE rúcima, aica (fell, dire, sharp) -WJ:415, PM:347
TERRIFY ruhta- -WJ:415
TERROR ossë (Ossë is also the name of a Maia held to be responsible for storms at sea.) -GOS, Silm:33, 34
THANKSGIVING #hantalë (isolated from Eruhantalë "thanksgiving to Eru". A verbal stem #hanta- "thank" can also be isolated.) -UT:436
THAT ta (it), tana, yana (the former), THAT (relative pronoun): "who, which, that" as a relative pronoun is i or ya: i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa "the One who is above all thrones", i carir quettar ómainen "those who form words with voices". A pronoun ya *"which" is found in the "Arctic" sentence; yassen "in which" in Nam is evidently this pronoun + a plural locative ending. -TA, YA, WJ:391, UT:305, 317, Arct
THATCH tupsë -TUP
THE i In Quenya, the definite article is generally used as in English. However, notice that it is not used before plural words denoting an entire people or race, such as Valar, Quendi, Noldor, Sindar, Eldar, Ainur, Fírimar etc. This is evident from examples like lambë Eldaron "the language of the Eldar [lit. simply "Eldar"]", Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar [lit. simply "Valar"] will be done". Cf. Tolkien's use of "Men" with no article, meaning the entire human race or humans in general, while "the Men" would be a group of individuals. Anar "the Sun" and Isil "the Moon" are probably treated like proper names in Quenya; they do not take the article. When a noun is determined by a following genitive, it is evidently optional whether it takes the article or not: mannar Valion "into the hands [lit. simply "hands"] of the Lords", Indis i Ciryamo "The Mariner's Wife, *The Wife [lit. simply "Wife"] of the Mariner" - but contrast I Equessi Rúmilo "the Sayings of Rúmil", i arani Eldaron "the Kings of the Eldar". If the genitive precedes the noun, the article must probably be left out, as in English (*Eldaron arani, ?Eldaron i arani). Note: i is also the relative pronoun "who, that"; see WHO. -I, WJ:404, 368, FS, UT:8, WJ:398, 369
THEE le (formal, perhaps the object form of elyë "thou", q.v; only known as a borrowing in Sindarin; see the notes on the poem A Elbereth Gilthoniel in RGEO) Case endings may be added, e.g. dative len "to/for thee". -LotR:61
THEIR - if analogy can be trusted, "they" is the ending *-nta, e.g. *aldanta "their tree". See THEY.
THEM te (independent pronoun); -t (pronominal ending, e.g. laituvalmet, "WE [-lme-] will praise THEM [-t]") -LotR:989 cf. Letters:308
THEN san -MC:216
THERE, LOOK! en (yonder) -EN
THEY -ntë (pronominal ending): Tiruvantes i hárar mahalmassen mí Númen "they will keep it who sit upon thrones in the West". The independent, emphatic form may be *entë.) Object "them" (and non-emphatic "they") is the independent pronoun te, that may also be expressed by the pronominal ending -t (as in a laita, laita te...laituvalmet, "bless them, bless them...we shall bless [or praise] them"). For "they", there is also the ending -lto as in tulielto "they have come" (LT1:270), but its status in mature Quenya is uncertain. -UT:317, LotR:989 cf Letters:308
THICK tiuca (fat) -TIW
THIGH tiuco -TIW
THIN - long and thin: lenwa (straight, narrow) -LT2:341
THING nat; THING MADE tanwë (device, construction, craft) -NÂ2, TAN
THINGOL Singollo (þ) short for Sindacollo (þ) (so in Silm:421; MR:217 and WJ:410 have Sindicollo, where the s represents original th, cf. PM:337, where the spelling Sindikollo is used [S = th as in thin]. Hence, these variant forms should be spelt with in initial súlë, not silmë, in Tengwar writing). However, it appears that Thingol was usually called Elwë in Quenya. -MR:385
THIRD #nelya (cf. Nelyar "Thirds", the third clan among the Elves) -WJ:420
THIRSTY fauca (open-mouthed, parched) -PHAU
THIS sina -UT:305
THITHER tar; THITHER LANDS (as seen from Valinor) Entar, Entarda (Outer Lands, Middle-earth, East) -TA, EN
THORN nassë (spike) -NAS
THORONDOR Sorontar -Silm:438
THOU elyë (independent pronoun, used fo r emphasis, therefore translated "even thou" in Nam and RGEO:67), -lyë (pronominal ending; the normal way of expressing non-emphatic "thou": hiruvalyë "thou shalt find"). This "thou" is formal. Concerning familiar or intimate "thou", that would often be translated "you" in English, only the object tye "thee" [q.v.] and the short suffix -t is attested; the latter may be used on imperatives, e.g. hecat "get thee gone!") -Nam/RGEO:67, WJ:364
THOUGHT ósanwë; COMMUNICATION OF THOUGHT ósanwë-centa -MR:415
THRALL mól -MÔ
THREAD (fine) lia (spider filament. Note: lia- is also the verb "twine".) -SLIG
THREE neldë (obsoleting olë in LT1:258) -NEL
THRESHOLD fenda -PHEN
THROAT lanco -LAK, LANK
THRONE mahalma (loc. pl. mahalmassen is attested) -UT:317
THRONG sanga (crowd, press); THRONG-CLEAVER Sangahyando (personal name, the "throng" being a closely formed body of enemy soldiers) -STAG, LT2:342, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425
THROUGH terë, ter; "THROUGH-ABIDE" (i.e., stand [fast]) #termar- (only fut. termaruva is attested) -TER, UT:305, 317
THY -lya, *-tya (endings used on nouns, e.g. *aldalya, *aldatya "thy tree". The ending *-tya is not attested and is deduced from the pronoun "thee" [q.v.].) The semantic distinction between -lya and *-tya is that -lya is formal or polite, while *-tya is intimate or familiar. Cf. THEE. In UT:51 (cf. 22), -lya is translated "your" instead of "thy", following modern English usage (tielyanna "upon your path").
TIGHT tunga (taut, [of strings:] resonant) -TUG
TILL (prep) an (for, to) -Arct
TILTED talta- (sloping, leaning) -TALÁT
TIME lúmë (translated "hour" in LotR:94; allative lúmenna is attested; Note: lúmë also means "darkness"); (= "a time, occasion"). FIXED TIME asar (Vanyarin athar) (festival), ONCE UPON A TIME yassë, yalúmessë, yáressë (Note: the first of these seems to clash with *yassë "in/on which".) -LU, WJ:399, YA
TIMID caurëa -LT1:257
TIN latúcen; OF TIN latucenda -LT1:268
TINDER tusturë -LT1:270
TINFANG Timpando -LT1:268
TINY titta (little) -TIT
TISSUE lannë (cloth) -LAN
TITLE see NICKNAME.
TO, TOWARDS ana, na, an (for, till); (prefix:) ana-. English "to, towards, -wards" will often be rendered by the allative ending -nna, pl -nnar, as in Elenna "Starwards" (Elen + [n]na) -NÂ, Plotz letter, UT:432, Silm:313
TOGETHER o- (prefix) -WÔ
TOIL móta- (labour) -MÔ
TOKEN tengwë (indication, sign, writing - pl tengwi is attested) -WJ:394, 395 cf. TEK
TOMB #noirë (isolated from Noirinan, "Valley of the Tombs") -UT:166
-TON (reduced form of "town" in names) -mas (-by) -LT1:250
TONGUE (physical tongue:) lamba, (language:) lambë, quetil (In LT2:339, it is said that lambë covers both "physical tongue" and "speech", but Tolkien later thought better of that. WJ:394 states that in non-technical use, lambë was the normal word for "language"; only the Loremasters used the technical term tengwesta instead.) LOREMASTER OF TONGUES #Lambengolmo (only pl Lambengolmor is attested) -LAB/LotR:1157/WJ:394, 396, KWET
TOOTH nelet (pl nelci), carca (fang, tusk); ROW OF TEETH carcanë (LT2 has carcassë, carcaras "row of spikes or teeth".) -NÉL-EK, KARAK/LT2:344
TOPMOST PINNACLE see FINISH.
TORMENT (vb) nwalya-. (Though spelt this way also in Etym, nwalya- must be from older *ngwalya, for the stem is ÑGWAL. In Tengwar spelling, the letter nwalmë (< older ngwalmë) should be used to transcribe the initial nw of nwalya.) TORMENT (noun) nwalmë (older [MET] ngwalmë), angaitya -LotR:1157 cf. ÑGWAL; LT1:249
TORTURE ungwalë, malcanë, valcanë -ÑGWAL, LT1:250
TOUGH norna (stiff), tarya (stiff) -WJ:413, TÁRAG
TOWARDS ana, na, an (for); (prefix:) ana- (to) -NÂ
TOWER mindon (also translated "Lofty Tower"; allative pl mindonnar or mindoninnar is attested) (turret), mindo (=isolated tower), tirion (= watchtower; also defined as "a mighty tower, a city on a hill), tirin (= tall tower; Note: a homonym means "I watch") See also TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS. -LT2:346/MC:222, MINI, LT1:258, TIR
TOWN osto (= town with wall) (city), opelë (walled village/house), irin; TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS tirios, TOWNSHIP ostar -OS, PEL(ES), LT1:258, LT2:343, 336
TRADE (vb) manca-, TRADESMAN macar -MBAKH
TRAILING sóra (long) -LT2:344
TRANSPARENCE liquis, TRANSPARENCY - the word vírin is defined as "a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashoning the Moon. Used of things of great and pure transparency." -LT1:262, LT2:339
TRAVEL lelya- (pa.t. lendë) (go, proceed) -WJ:363
TREASURE harma, harwë (both words also used of a single treasured thing), foa, mírë (jewel, precious thing); TREASURY harwë (also used = treasure). -3AR/LotR:1157, LT2:340, MIR
TREE alda (gen.pl. aldaron is attested), ornë (= high, isolated tree), taulë (= great tree). HAVING TREES, TREE-GROWN aldarwa, TREE-SHADOWED aldëa, AVENUE OF TREES aldëon; LORD OF TREES Aldaron (a name of Oromë) -GALAD/Nam/LotR:1147/ 1157, OR-NI/LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, LT1:267, LT1:249, Silm:32, 378
TRESS findë (lock of hair) (probably obsoleting findil in LT2) -SPIN, LT2:341
TRIANGLE neltil (pl neltildi), nasta (spear-head, point, gore) -TIL, SNAS
TRIBE hostar -LT2:340
TROOP hossë (army, band) -LT2:340
TROTH vérë (bond, compact, oath) (Pl. probably *vérer not *véri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver.) -WED
TRUE sanda (firm, abiding), anwa (real, actual) -STAN, ANA
TRUMP hyóla -SD:419
TRUMPET romba (horn), tumbë; TRUMPET-SOUND róma (loud sound) (Note: róma means "shoulder" in one of Tolkien's early "Qenya" lexicons.) -WJ:400/ROM, LT1:269
TRUST estel (hope) -MR:320
T-SERIES tincotéma (dental series) -LotR:1154
TUBE róta -LT2:347
TÚN (Old English) see FENCED FIELD -PEL(ES)
TUNE lindë (air, song, singing) -LIN2
TUNNEL rotto (s mall grot) -PM:365
TURGON Turucáno (so in PM:345, obsoleting Turondo in LT1:115)
TURRET mindon (tower) -LT1:260
TUSK carca (tooth, fang) -Silm:429, LT2:344
TWANG tingë, tango. LT1:256 has quingi- "twang, of strings, harp". In Etym, there is also the unglossed verb tanga- = *"make a twang"??? -TING, TANG
TWELVE *rasta (only the stem RÁSAT is given; assuming that the sound-changes were regular, this would become *rasta in Quenya). TWELVE HOURS ("day" not meaning 24 hours) arya (day) -RÁSAT, AR1
TWILIGHT tindómë (usually of the time near dawn, glossed "starry twilight" in Silm:438), undómë (= evening twilight), yúcalë, yualë, lómë (night, dusk, gloom, darkness. Cf. Lómion "Child of the Twilight".) -LotR 1145, KAL, LT1:255, Silm:160
TWIN onóna (also = adj "twinborn", the primary meaning of the word), pl. ónoni (surprisingly, a dual form is not used) -WJ:367
TWINE lia- (Note: lia is also a noun meaning "fine thread, spider's filament") -LT1:271
TWINKLE #tintila- (only pl tintilar is attested) -Nam, RGEO:67
TWINKLING STAR tingilya, tingilindë -TIN
TWISTED nauca (hard, ill-shapen, *small - see SMALL.) -WJ:413
TWITCH rihta- (jerk, give quick twist or move) -RIK(H)
TWO atta -AT(AT)/Letters:427

<U>

UDÛN Utumno -Silm:438
ULTIMATE métima (final, last) -MC:222 cf. 215
UN- (prefix) ú- (no-, not, un-, in-) ("usually with bad sense"), il- (denoting "the opposite, the reversal, i.e., more than the mere negation") -UGU, UMU, LT1:255
*UNCOUNTABLE únótimë (translated "numberless"; the interlinear translation in RGEO:66 has "not-count-able") -Nam
UNDER undu, nu (so in Nam; Etym has no); UNDERNEATH nún (down below) -UNU, NÛ
UNDERSTAND hanya- (know about, be skilled in dealing with); UNDERSTANDING (noun) handë (knowledge); UNDERSTANDING (adjectival) handa (intelligent) -KHAN
UNFURL panta- (spread out, open) -PAT
UNIVERSE ilu, ilúvë (the whole, the all, Allness) -ILU (see IL)
UNPRONOUNCEABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unspeakable) -WJ:370
UNSPEAKABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unpronounceable) -WJ:370
UP, UPWARDS amba, ama (prefix:) am-. (The form amu in LT2:335 is prob. obsolete.)
UPWARD SLOPE amban; UPHILL (adj) ambapenda, ampenda -AM2, UNU
UPON - this English preposition may be rendered by the allative case, endings -nna pl. -nnar, dual -nta. Cf. falmalinnar "upon foaming waves", tielyanna "upon your path". -Nam, UT:22 cf. 51
UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) -MC:223
UPRISING ambaron, Ambarónë (sunrise, Orient) (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR:490). Rómen is glossed "uprising, sunrise, east" in Silm:437, but the normal meaning of the word is always "east". Cf. also: "UPRISING-FLOWER" *ambalotsë ("referring to the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to [the] point of a tall [illegible word, possibly 'archaic'] helmet", "pointed helm-crest". Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of the name Amloth) -AM2, LotR:490, WJ:318
URANUS Luinil (or less probably Nénar; it is not known for certain which of the two is Uranus and which is Neptune) -Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55
URGE horta- (speed, send flying); URGING (noun, not adjectival participle) hortalë (speeding), URGENCY hormë -KHOR
US #me (only attested with a dual ending: met "us two" in an exclusive sense, "he/she and me". -Nam/RGEO:67
USEFUL mára (fit, good) -MA3

<V>

VAGUE néca (faint, dim to see) -MC:223
VALE (dark) tumbë (deep valley) -LT:269
*VALIAN valarinwa, attested in Lambë Valarinwa "the language of the Valar, *Valian Language". Cf. also valaina "of the Valar, belonging to the Valar" (divine) -WJ:395, BAL
VALLEY nan (nand-), tumbo (deep valley under/among hills, dark vale; so in Etym, Silm:438 and LT1:269. Letters:308 gives tumba "deep valley".) VALLEY (adj.) nalda; "VALLEY OF SINGING GOLD" Laurelindorinan (Lórien). -TUB, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, LT1:261, UT:449
VALOUR cánë -KAN
VANISHED vanwa (gone, departed, dead, lost, past and over) -WAN, Nam, WJ:366
VAST - LT2 gives aica "broad, vast", but aica is said to mean "sharp" in later writings. -LT2:338
VEIL (vb) halya- (conceal, screen from ligh); "VEILS, RAYMENT" fana (pl fanar is attested. This word was used of the visible bodies in which the Valar presented themselves to incarnates.) VEILED halda (hidden, shadowed, shady) -SKAL, RGEO:74
VENUS Eärendil (Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55), Tancol ("Signifer", "the significant star" - MR:385)
VESSEL venë (small boat, dish) -LT1:254
VESTMENT colla (cloak) -MR:385
VICTORY túrë (mastery), apairë -TUR, GL:17
VIGIL tiris (watch) -LT1:258
VIGOUR tuo (muscle, sinew, strength), vië (manhood), vëassë, laito/laisi (new life, youth); VIGOROUS vëa (adult, manly) -TUG, LT1:267, WEG
VILLAGE masto, (walled:) opelë (town) -LT1:251, PEL(ES)
VINE liantassë -LT1:271
VIOLENCE ormë (rushing, wrath, haste); VIOLENT naraca (harsh, rending) -GOR, KHOR, NÁRAK
VIOLET helin, Helinyetillë ("Eyes of heartsease") (pansy) -LT1:262
VIRGINITY vénë (with the alternative, probably older [MET] form wénë), venessë -WEN
VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (i.e., the addition to the base of a final vowel identical to the base vowel [sundóma]) -WJ:417
VOICE óma (pl instrumental ómainen "with voices" is attested. In some words, óma is translated "vowel", q.v.) -OM, WJ:391
VOID lusta (empty), cúma (the Void) -LUS, KUM
VOWEL óman (pl. amandi - misreading for *omandi?) (Note: *óman can also be the dative form of óma "voice". In some compounds, óma seems to mean "vowel" instead of voice: VOWEL SIGN #ómatehta (only pl ómatehtar is attested), DETERMINANT VOWEL sundóma, VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (q.v. for definition) -OM, WJ:396, 319, 417

<W>

WAIF hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, outcast, outlaw) -WJ:365
WAILING (noun) yaimë; WAILING (adj) yaimëa -MC:223
WAIN (the constellation) see SICKLE OF THE VALAR
WAKENING (adj) cuivëa (awakening) -KUY
WALK (vb) vanta-; WALK (noun) vanta -BAT
WALL ramba; WALL AND MOAT ossa; TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS tirios -RAMBÂ/Silm:436, LT1:258, LT2:336
*WANDER ranya- (only glossed stray under RAN, but cf. Silm:436: "ran- 'wander, stray'" and the following word:) WANDERING (noun) ránë (straying) (pl. probably *ráner not ráni; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl tyáver.) WANDERER Rána (a name of the Moon), #ran (isolated from Palarran "far-wanderer", the name of a ship) -RAN, Silm:436, UT:460, 461
WANT merë (3. pers. sg. aorist; stem #mer-, pa.t. mernë) (wish, desire) -MER
WAR ohta -OKTÂ, KOT
WARM lauca -LAW
WARRIOR ohtatyaro, ohtar, #mehtar (isolated from Telumehtar "Orion, warrior of the sky", a word occurring in LotR. Etym gives mahtar "warrior" under MAK, but Telumehtar not **Telumahtar under TEL). LT1:268 also has mordo "warrior, hero", but in mature Quenya mordo means "obscurity, shadow, stain". -KYAR (see KAR), UT:458, LotR:1146, MAK, TEL
WARWICKSHIRE Alalminórë (Land of Elms) -LT1:249
WATCH (vb) tirin ("I watch", 1. pers. aorist), pa.t. tirnë; fut. tiruva is attested (heed), WATCH-TOWER tirion; WATCH (noun) (vigil) -TIR, MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:258, LT1:268
WATER nén (nen-) (LT1:262 also has linquë); WATER-FALL - LT1:249 gives axa, but this is probably obsoleted by axa "narrow path" in Etym; WATERY nenda (wet), WATER-MEAD, WATERED PLAIN nanda; WATER-LOVERS Nendili (used of the Lindar), WATER-VESSEL calpa; DRAW WATER calpa- (scoop out, bale out); ISSUE OF WATER ehtelë (fountain, spring, also cehtelë, see FOUNTAIN), WATER FALLING OUT SWIFTLY FROM A ROCKY SPRING celussë (freshlet), YELLOW WATER-LILY nénu -NEN, WJ:410, NAD, KALPA, KEL, UT:426, LT1:248
WAVE (crested) falma (partitive plural allative falmalinnar is attested. LT1:266 has solmë instead of falma.) -PHAL, Nam/RGEO:67
WAX líco, neitë -MC:223, GL:60
WAY tië (path, course, line, direction, road), #vanda (isolated form Qualvanda "Road of Death" in LT1:264; cf. vand- "way, path" on the same page. Yet vanda means "oath" in UT:317, so this old [TLT] word is doubtful. Use tië, or tëa "road") -TE3/RGEO:67, LT1:264
WE -mmë (pronominal ending used on verbs, e.g. vammë "we won't". This "we" is exclusive, meaning "they and I", not including the person(s) that is spoken to. The ending for "we, including you (sg or pl)" is -lmë. We can deduce one inclusive dual ending, "we" meaning "you (sg) and I": *-lvë (deduced from the corresponding possessive suffix -lva "our"). The emphatic, independent forms of these pronouns are perhaps *emmë, *elmë, *elvë. -WJ:371, LotR:989, 94, cf. Letters:447
WEAL, WEALTH alma (good fortune), ausië, autë (prosperity, also adj: rich) WEALTHY herenya (blessed, fortuneate, rich) -GALA, LT2:336, KHER
WEAR see BEAR. WEAR (OUT) yerya- (get old) (Note: yerya is also the adjective "old, worn") -GYER
WEATHER - dark weather: lúrë -LT1:259
WEAVE lanya- -LAN
WEB natsë (net); SPIDER'S WEB ungwë -NAT, LotR:1157
WED vesta-; WEDDING vestalë -BES, WED
WEDGE nehtë (spearhead, gore, narrow promontory) -UT:282
WEEK lemnar (from a root meaning "five", since the Valian week had five days) enquië (from a root meaning "six", since the Eldarin week had six days), otsola (evidently meaning a seven-day week like our own, as otso = seven) -LEP, LotR:1141 cf. ÉNEK, GL:62
WEEPING nyényë -LT1:262
WEFT lanat, wistë -LAN , LT1:254
WENT lendë (departed) (past tense of lelya-/linna- "go") LT1:264 gives , but this is probably not a valid word in mature Quenya. -LED, WJ:363
WEREWOLF nauro (In Etym, this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -NGAW
WEST númen (so in Etym and LotR; Númen is capitalized in UT:305; this word obsoletes númë in LT1:263), andúnë (sunset, evening); WESTERN númenya; IN THE WEST númëa; WESTLAND see WESTERNESSE; WESTLANDS Andustar (a region in Númenor) "WEST-WINGS" (the name of a ship) Númerrámar -LotR:1157/NDÛ, Nam, UT:305, Silm:428, LT1:263, UT:165, 419, UT:175, 458
WESTERNESSE, WESTLAND Númenor (full form Númenórë) -Silm:313, 414
WET mixa, linquë (obsoleting liquin in LT1:262), nenda (watery) -MISK, NEN, LINKWI
WHAT see WHO
WHEREIN yassen (refering back to a pl word; sg #yassë) -Nam, RGEO:66, 67
WHICH ya (known from the Arctic sentece and attested with a plural locative ending in Nam: yassen "which-in, wherein". See WHO concerning relative pronouns. Note: ya is probably not used as a question-word as in "which is it"?) -Nam, RGEO:66
WHINING miulë (mewing) -MIW
WHIRLPOOL hwindë -SWIN
WHISPER (vb) lussa-; WHISPERING SOUND lussë -SLUS
WHITE ninquë (chill, pallid), fána/fánë (prob. associated with the whiteness of clouds, fanyar), lossë (snow-white). -NIK-W-/GL:60/Silm:435 cf. WJ:417, RGEO:69, MC:221-223
WHAT IS mana -PM:395 (so "what" = ma? man?)
WHO man (so in Nam and MC:222; MC:221 one place has men, but that is evidently an error, for man occurs in the same text. In FS and LR:59/63, man is translated "what". Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers the meaning of both "who" and "what".) Note: this "who" is used only in questions. The relative pronoun "who, which, that" is i or ya: i Eru i or ilyë mahalmar ëa "the One who is above all thrones", i carir quettar ómainen "(those) who form words with voices". A pronoun ya *"which" is found in the "Arctic" sentence; yassen "in which" in Nam is evidently this pronoun + a plural locative ending. -Nam/MC:222, WJ:391, UT:305, 317, Arct
WHOEVER aiquen (if anybody) -WJ:372
WHOLE ilya (all), THE WHOLE ilúvë (the All, Allness, universe) -IL, Silm:433
WHOLLY aqua (fully, completely, altogether) -WJ:392
WIDE palla, landa; FAR AND WIDE palan; THE WIDE WORLD Palurin -PAL, LAD, Silm:435, LT1:264
WIELD turin ("I wield", 1. pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (control, govern). WIELD A WEAPON mahta- (fight) -TUR, MAK
WIFE vessë (In UT, indis is translated "wife"; in Etym this word is glossed "bride".) -BES, UT:8 cf. NDIS
WILD verca, #hravan (only pl. hravani is attested; Hravani the "Wild" was used in Exilic Quenya to designate Men not belonging to the three houses of the Edain.) -BERÉK, WJ:219
WILDERNESS ráva (Note: a homonym means "riverbank") -RAB
WILL (noun) *selma (þ) ("a fixed idea, will". In WJ:319, the word is given as Selma, but S (th) would become s in the Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Sindë, sindë in WJ:384) -WJ:319
WILL NOT - I will not: (exclamation, also = Do not!); avan, ván, vanyë "I won't", avammë, vammë "we won't" -WJ:371
WILLOW-TREE tasar, tasarë (þ) (probably obsoleting tasarin in LT2:346) -TATHAR/Silm:438
WIND súrë (S?) (instrumental form súrinen is attested), súlimë (þ) (also the name of the month of March), vaiwa, waiwa (the latter is probably an older [MET] form); NOISE OF WIND , WINDY wanwavoitë (pl. wanwavoisi) -MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:266, Nam/RGEO:66, WÂ, LT1:266
WIND UP telya- (transitive) (conclude, finish) -WJ:411
WINE miru, limpë (the drink of the Valar, or of the fairies). The word míruvórë, míruvor is defined as "a special wine or cordial." -LT1:261, LIP, LT1:258, WJ:399
WING ráma (Pl. rámar and plural instrumental form rámainen are attested. The form #rámë, occurring in the ship-name Eärrámë "Sea-Wing", evidently has a feminine ending.)
HAVING WINGS rámavoitë, "WEST-WINGS" (the name of a ship) Númerrámar -RAM/LT2:335, MC:222, Silm:295, UT:175, 458
WINTER hrívë, (in early [TLT] material:) Yelin, Hesin. (In the Calendar of Imladris, hrívë was a precisely defined period of 72 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition.) Lasselanta "leaf-fall" could be used for the beginning of winter, but the usual translation of this word is "autumn". "WINTER ONE" Hescil (a title of Nienna "who breedeth winter", LT1:66, 255) -LotR:1141, 1145; LT1:255, LT1:260
WISDOM nolwë (secret lore, obsoleting nólemë in LT1:263), nólë (long study, lore, knowledge) (In Etym these words, as well as nóla below, are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) WISE nóla (learned), saira, istima (having knowledge, learned), iswa, isqua -NGOL, Silm:432, IS, SAY, LT2:339
WISH (vb) merë (3. pers. sg. aorist; stem #mer-, pa.t. mernë) (desire, want) -MER
WITCH (of the good magic) curuni -LT1:269
WITHER hesta-, WITHERED hessa (dead) -LT1:255
WITHIN mi (se e IN) -MI
WIZARD istar (nom. pl. istari and gen.pl. istarion are attested), sairon, curuvar WIZARDRY - in LT1:269, curu is glossed "magic, wizardry", but in Etym the gloss is simply "skill". -LotR:1121, UT:388, cf. IS, SAY; LT1:269
WOLF ráca, narmo, WEREWOLF nauro; WOLFHOWL naulë (In Etym, narmo, nauro and naulë are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -DARÁK, NGAR(A)M, NGAW
WOMAN nís (so in MR:213, Etym gives nis, but both sources agree that the pl is nissi. An alternative form of nís/nis is nissë, clashing with *nissë "in me". Writers should use the short sg nís, as Tolkien himself does in MR:213); +(female) -NDIS/NÎ/NIS, MR:213, NÎ, INI
WON'T see WILL NOT
WOOD - great wood: taurë (pl. tauri is attested) (forest), wood as material: tavar, rough piece of wood: runda, peace of shaped wood: pano, smouldering wood (ember): yulmë (Note: yulmë also means "drinking, carousal") firewood: turu ("firewood" was the proper meaning, but the word was used for "wood" in general); OF WOOD taurina, WOODEN turúva, WOODEN POST samna (þ); WOODEN HALL ampano, WOODPECKER tambaro, WOODLAND tavas (LT1:261 also gives nan(d), but this means "valley" in mature Quenya.) -TÁWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf. 215, RUD, PAN, YUL, LT1:270, STAB, TAM, LT1:267
WOOF winda -LT1:254
WOOL (obsoleting oa in LT1:249; GL:71 has toa, but cf the following:) OF WOOL, WOOLEN toa -TOW
WORD quetta (pl. quettar is attested. LT2:348 gives quent; this word is no doubt obsolete in mature Quenya. GL:28 has "qetta-") -Silm:436, WJ:391
WORLD Ambar (earth), THE WIDE WORLD Palurin. (LT2 gives irmin "the world, all the regions inhabited by Men"; this is probably not a valid word in mature Quenya.) OF THE WORLD marda (an adjective, *"wordly"); THE ENDING OF THE WORLD Ambar-metta; "WORLD-ARTIFICER" Martamo (a title of Aulë) -LotR:1003 cf. MBAR; LT1:251, 264, LT2:343, LT1:266
WORN yerna (old [of things]), colla (pa.p. of #col- "bear, *wear") (borne). Also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak". -GYER, MR:385
WORTH, WORTHY valda (dear) -GL:23
WOSE , Rúatan (pl Rúatani is given but seems perfectly regular) -UT:385
WOUND (vb) harna-; WOUNDED harna; WOUND (noun) harwë -SKAR
WRAP vaita- -LT1:271
WRATH ormë (haste, violence, rushing) -GOR, KHOR
WREATHE ría (garland) -PM:347
WRIGHT s amno (þ) (carpenter, builder) -STAB
WRITE tece; WRITING tengwë (Note: a homonym means "indication, sign, token"; pl tengwi is attested); WRITING SYSTEM tencelë (spelling); WRITINGS parma (book) -TEK cf. WJ:394, 395, LT2:346
WRONG raica (crooked, bent) -RÁYAK

<Y>

YARD ranga (pl rangar is attested). The basic meaning of ranga was "full pace". This Númenórean linar measure was "slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". -UT:285, 461
YAWN yanga-, #hac- (only attested as participle: hácala "yawning") -YAG, MC:222
YEAR loa (lit. "growth"), coranar (lit. "sun-round", used when the year was considered more or less astronomically - but loa is stated to be the more usual word for "year"). "LONG-YEAR" yén (pl. yéni is attested in Nam, obsoleting Etym yeni). A "long-year" is a period of 144 solar years, an Elvish "century" - the Eldar used duodecimal counting, in which 144 is the first three-digit number, like our 100. But sometimes it seems that yén simply means "year". Cf the following words: LAST YEAR yenya, HAVING MANY YEARS linyenwa (old), *RECKONING OF YEARS Yénonótië -LotR:1141, YEN, MR:51
YELLOW malina, tulca (the latter was adopted from Valarin and used in Vanyarin Quenya only),YELLOW POWDER malo (pollen), "YELLOW HAMMER" (yellow bird) ammalë, ambalë, YELLOW WATER-LILY nénu -SMAL, WJ:399, LT1:248
YOKE yanta (bridge), yaltë -YAT, GL:37
YONDER (adj) enta; YONDER (interjection?) en (there, look!) -EN
YOU (pl. only; for sg "you", see THOU) The ending -lyë may cover pl. as well as sg. "you". The reduced form -l may be used on an imperative: hecal! "you be gone!" [WJ:364] and probably also as object: *Utúvienyel, "I (-nye) have found you (-l)". Perhaps -l can be used for plural "you" in subject postition as well, e.g. lendel, "you went". The independent (emphatic) word for "you, even you" as subject may be *elyë, while object "you" seems to be le (probably also used as a polite or formal sg: "thee"). YOUR -lya (possessive suffix, e.g. *aldalya "your tree" - assuming that -lyë is indeed pl. as well as sg.)
YOUNG nessa, vinya, cana; YOUTH nésë (þ), nessë, laito/laisi (vigour, new life); YOUTHFUL nessima -NETH, LR:25, GL:37, LT1:267

<Z>

ZIMRAPHEL Míriel -UT:224, Silm:324
ZIMRATHÔN Hostamir -UT:222

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End English-Quenya Wordlist

Version 1.3.

ISDNR 0323220238273505-0630-103736290337193525